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Соль ЗемлиIn the knowledge of the real world, there are no trifles. Even ordinary salt can tell us about global change in the nature of our planet. You only need to look attentively and ponder what lies before our eyes...

What you will learn by reading this article, you can Express in words - a surprising number. Amazing, because imagination opens a kind of "breathing" of the living world, organized by changing dimensions of space. Science calls it "osmosis" (pressure). Amazing, because it's the magic changes-dimensionality of space in the volume of soup pots, is engaged in every woman. But still the main topic of the article, it is obvious connection between salt intake and changes in atmospheric pressure.

The sudden shortage of salt

It turns out that the consumption of salt is not a whim of gourmets. It is vital to man. Our daily requirement 5...10 grams. If the consumption to stop, then come the inevitable consequences in the form of exhaustion, nervous disorders, digestive problems, bone fragility, lack of appetite, and, finally, death. This is because the shortage of salt in the body compensates by removing it from the other organs and tissues, i.e. the destruction of the bones and muscles.

Why nature has treated us so cruelly? Where our wild ancestors had to get salt, if available, it has become relatively recently?

A few centuries ago, salt was very expensive, as often occurs in nature in a usable form. It should be mine. Only developing the technology of production of salt that had taken centuries, we artificially satisfied this need. But why man has been deprived necessary for life resource, while the standard state of developing ecological system is abundance? Any substantial impairment leads to a delay in its development.

And well if we were talking only about the person. Almost all herbivorous animals and birds have the same salt shortage. The industry even produces special fodder salt for livestock. Salt fed horses, rabbits, Guinea pigs and parrots. In the wild boars and elks never pass by bait in the form of a lump of salt-monster and come back. Poor animals, like us, suffer from a lack of salt, but unlike humans do not have solodovaya industry. They lick stones, digging the ground in search of salt, and welcome any handouts.

Everything suggests that the current state of nature abnormal. Something has changed in the peaceful course of evolution. Most likely, the very need for salt appeared not so long ago, in the result of some global changes on our planet. Otherwise the animal world have had the time to fully adapt to changes.

Scientific approach to the problem

It is not superfluous to know how all this looks scientific world. And he sees no problem and just trying to describe patterns. For example, say that the salinity of the blood of animals corresponds to the salinity of the water of the world ocean:

"This fact was noted in the past century Bunge (Bunge, 1898), which was expressed for the first time the assumption that life originated in the ocean and modern animals inherited from their oceanic ancestors inorganic composition of blood, so similar to sea water. Theory of oceanic origin of the mineral composition of the internal environment was developed for the Mac by Kellymom (McCallum, 1910, 1926), in which evidence has led numerous blood tests of various animals. This theory has been for 50 years, all new reinforcements, until it has acquired to date, the degree of probability, which is possible for biological builds covering the distant era of the development of life (doubtful probability, - author)". "Physiological mechanisms of water-salt balance" Genetiski A. G.

According to scientists, the salinity of the blood only simulates ancient habitat of the simplest organisms. I.e. liquid ocean gradually retreated into the internal cycles of the body and genetically survived in this form. The heirs of those ancient organisms were all modern animals.

Optimal salinity blood is approximately equal to 1% (or rather 0,89%). The salinity of the same world ocean now 3 times higher. This scientific world does not bother, not to discard same for nothing such a beautiful theory, especially as other guesses no. Here and agreed to think that sometime in the distant past, the ocean was just 1%of salinity. And then for some reason (no matter why) salty. Once again adjusted the reality under their conjectures.

But during the 20th century, instead of "new reinforcements", theory of oceanic origin of the internal environment has been accumulating new contradictions. Resolution of these contradictions, in order to protect the prevailing theory, and mainly engaged theorists from biology.

The idea with blood clear. But the blood is intercellular fluid, and how do things stand with the internal fluid cells? It turns out that the mineral content (salinity) inside the cell is always different from the external environment. And differs sharply - blood lot of sodium ions (+Na) and little potassium ions (+K), and in the cell all the way around. And now biologists, on idea, should continue his idea further.

According to the theory, at the moment of emergence of complex multicellular organisms ocean water was similar to blood - 1% salinity, including a lot of sodium and low in potassium, (+Na)>(+K). Then even earlier, at the time of the birth of unicellular when closed three-layer protein-fat cell membranes, ion composition of the oceans was the reverse is low in sodium and a lot of potassium (+Na)<(+K). Here you will not hear, because fantasize about the increasing salinity of the ocean in 3 times more can, and try to convince people in such a mess chemical composition of the water of the planet, is difficult. Yes and as evidence to bring absolutely nothing. Some conjectures.

Thus, today the scientific world calms himself and all mankind untenable theory of oceanic origin of the internal environment that attracts the ears of all that it doesn't fit, and in stop sees no problem. They say, all right, everything was okay.

The inconsistency of the theory

The theory of the weak, based on a small private case of similarity. Even though the similarity is difficult to say when the numbers are 3 times. This theory completely out of touch with the General view of the development of the planetary ecological systems. Judge for yourself.

Freshwater and terrestrial organisms are now in a constant state of lack of salt and marine organisms are able catastrophic excess. This is a big problem, and it is being addressed by each their own, as it happens. In article it is impossible to describe all the variety of attempts to survive in these extreme conditions. To whom it is interesting to delve into this interesting question suggest to familiarize with work ("Osmoregulation and the effect of salinity").

Often the methods of adaptation is so original, that's amazing. And it is curious that organisms use existing systems, loading them extra work to maintain the salt balance. For example, in humans it kidneys. Special systems have not appeared.

Protozoa, no complicated excretory systems, but to live too want. So they decided the question is simple and uncomfortable. Freshwater unicellular continuously often-often "breathe" throwing out the excess water, which is pumped into them systematically and continuously with the help of osmotic pressure, which will be discussed below. If they are no longer forced to discard the liquid, they will immediately torn by internal pressure.

And marine simplest Vice versa almost throw liquid because of excessive salinity of the ocean, and so tends to pump out water from them and flattening. Like good, no need to strain, but it makes it difficult to get rid of toxins. Can be poisoned to death. A normal life is not called because the device takes a lot of efforts.

There are worms that have to exist in the waters of variable salinity. It mouths of the rivers flowing into the sea. They got married in helpless to deal with the destructive changes in salinity, and survive only due to the elasticity of their fabrics. When it comes to fresh water is inflated, and when returned sea - shrink. That's how I live.

Finally lossless still has not adapted. The process is in full swing. Today, scientists record regular extinction of some species. Nature continues to lose diversity. It is trying to explain bad ecology, but similar happened in 18...19 centuries, when people have practically no effect on the climate and pollution. So, there is a planetary emergency situation, as they say in the military.

Of course, modern scientific theory is unable to explain how he could over millions of years to develop and flourish the ecological system of the planet, having such problems with osmotic compatibility environment and living organisms.

It is believed that the more problems there are, the faster developing ecological system. We see just such a stupid case. In English, it would sound like this: the more sticks in the wheels stick, the faster cart roll. The stupidity of course, but adults with scientific degrees seriously speak about it as about the promotion of the movement. Now all from legs on a head set.

If the positions of the late 19th century theory ocean of origin : Guangdong Chinafoster internal environment and could be considered progressive, today it is unacceptably low analytical level, the solidity and unwillingness to go beyond traditional concepts.

But as you know, to criticize everything ready. And what do you offer? The fact of the matter, and that we can offer. Let us start with osmotic, and its role in the survival of organisms.

Salt pump

Most importantly, why do we need salt - maintaining osmotic pressure. It is very simple and interesting thing. Imagine capacity, separated by a partition with tiny holes. She passes molecules of water, but the ions of sodium and chlorine (dissolved salt) holds. These are the properties of cell membranes. If one part of the capacity to fill in salt water, and the adjacent freshwater, then after a while the water level in the salt Department will spontaneously rise up and fresh at the same falls. Like water from a fresh branch pumped pump salt. This is because water tends to dilute brine and align concentration in both divisions. The membrane is permeable only water (salt ions can't get in fresh Department) and the process is going in the same direction. Thus arises the osmotic pressure, a kind of salt pump.

Why is this happening, clear scientific explanation no. But Nikolay Viktorovich Levashov in his books showed how this works in the tissues of our body. With the saturation of ions of salt varies dimension interstitial fluid. Each ion warps space around you. Their cumulative effect and gives such a distortion. Occurs it is the osmotic pressure, as the dimensionality gradient.

We are dimensionality constantly. Sprinkle the road salt - change the dimension of the space in the volume of road surface and, consequently, decreases the temperature of crystallization of water. Around lies winter snow, and here on the go spring. Ordinary miracle.

Or, for example, take fresh cucumbers, put them in a glass jar and pour brine with a salt concentration of over 30%. Thus the dimension of the brine is so great that got in the space of banks bacteria can't resist osmotic pressure. They shrink and die. And besides them there is no one to spoil our cucumbers, delicacy will be stored for a long time.

Atmospheric and osmotic pressure associated

Simplistically in the body salt pump works like this: if intercellular fluid gets rid of ions of salt, and becomes more fresh, then the cell is pumped some amount of liquid to desalinate and align the dimensionality gradient. Own internal pressure cells naturally increases slightly. She seemed to be inflated. And this happens until an equilibrium of all forces. If intercellular fluid saturated with ions of salt (becomes more salty), the pump is switched on in the opposite direction, from cells pumped out some of the fluid. Internal pressure cells decreases, and she kind of blown away.

It is important to understand that the fluctuations of the pressure inside the cell valid only within narrow limits. Interesting scientific experience:

"If the red blood cells placed in a saline solution with the same osmotic pressure (salinity, - ed.) with blood, they are noticeable not affected by the changes. In a solution with a high osmotic pressure (salted, - ed.) cells shrink as the water starts to come out of them into the environment. In a solution with low osmotic pressure (fresh - ed.) red blood cells swell and disintegrate. This is because the water from the solution with low osmotic pressure starts to enter the red blood cells, skin cells are not withstand high pressure and bursts".

Continue the experiment yourself. In previous experience with constant atmospheric pressure changed the salinity of the solution. And now we will change the atmospheric pressure at a constant part of the solution. Again place the same red blood cells in the solution corresponding to normal today salinity blood 0,89 %. With them, of course, nothing happens.

But if we put all this in the pressure chamber and significantly lower atmospheric pressure, the cells will bulk up and burst. Because of their internal pressure will be much higher than the external. Another mechanism of pressure equalization, except salt pump, nature cells did not. To avoid cell death in conditions of low atmospheric pressure is pretty easy. You just need to salt solution. Earn salt pump and pumped out of the cell membranes of the fluid. The cells will not be interrupted, and will live happily ever after, if only time to podkalivat interstitial fluid.

This experiment shows that if scientists did not consider the atmospheric pressure as a permanent, you would immediately notice that it directly depends on the salinity of the blood. It is now believed that constant salinity blood, it is mandatory event for all organisms. The way it is, but only until atmospheric pressure is not changed several times.

Interestingly, the framework water-salt balance of such option biologists is not considered, although it is about the hundreds of millions of years of evolution. And if they admit that such inert environment, as the water of the world ocean during this time changed its salinity several times, then it is logical to assume that the atmospheric pressure has varied a lot more.

I must admit that all the above osmotic processes much more difficult. Not the experts on the biology will be to blame: "Behold, they say, whip all on the cheek, and in the essence of the issue is not even deepened". Indeed, and cell membrane miss some amount of ions and are active chemical "pumps" type "of Na/K-ATPase, which forcibly transferred metal ions through the membrane of the cell. Yes and water penetrates through the membrane tests resistance because of the fatty layer between the collagen casings cells. It is necessary to consider that the internal pressure cell (turgor) is always greater than the external, to maintain elasticity. In animals it is approximately 1 atmosphere. But in fact it is not so much affect water-salt balance, and experience with erythrocytes example. All these factors only contribute to the state of equilibrium.

How does it work in life

Nikolay Viktorovich Levashov wrote that the human body is hard colony of cells. Almost every cell of our body such as those treated erythrocytes. It is surrounded by the intercellular fluid and fully experiencing the atmospheric pressure. It is naturally, not of blood, since last fall sharply while pushing the fluid through the capillaries. Of course, the human body in General, this is a more robust design than a single cell. There is a skeleton of bone and strong integumentary tissues. Therefore, we are capable to big, but relatively short-term pressure drops.

When diving to a depth of 100 m divers have the water pressure is more than 10 atmospheres. And, on the contrary, in one of the reports NASA was described experiment with low blood pressure, conducted on monkeys (conditionally). The animal was placed in a hyperbaric chamber and reduced pressure to vacuum. It turned out that our bodies have the strength, while still allowing 15-20 seconds to take meaningful action. After this comes the loss of consciousness, and in 40-50 seconds, due to decompression sickness destroys the brain.

However, our margin of safety does not save at long influence of low pressure. Begin to be broken metabolism. The pressure of intercellular liquid, usually close to atmospheric, falls below normal, while in the cells, it is still high. The body begins to regulate osmotic pressure (podkalivat blood), combating bias.

Now, in order cells have not experienced the destructive internal pressure is required (as in our experience with pressure chamber) increase the salinity of extracellular fluid. And to support this new level must constantly. Need more salt than keep our previous diet. Our body this was strictly followed by tracking the signals from internal sensors. The brain sends a signal: "I Want salty". And if you will not go to meet him, he would get this salt from all tissues, where possible. Will not live long and unfortunate.

Very interestingly, the osmotic pressure of only 60% is generated ions of salts, other participants of this process - glucose, proteins, etc. That is sweet and tasty. Here is the clue of our taste basis. Man loves sweet because these substances are complementary mechanism counterweight to the reduced atmospheric pressure, help salty pump to operate. We also necessary as salt. Again, all of the animals that suffer from a lack of salt, is also very fond of sweets. Fortunately sweet in nature is more common. This fruit, berries, roots, and of course honey. Also sugar highlighted in the process of digestion of starch, which is contained in cereals.

Conclusions

Animals, like humans, on our planet are adapted to living in conditions of greater atmospheric pressure than we have today (760 mm RT. Art.). How it was more difficult to quantify, but is estimated not less than in 1,5 times. However, if to take for a basis the fact that the osmotic pressure of blood plasma averages 768,2 kPa (7,6 ATM.), it is likely that initially, our atmosphere was thicker 8 times (about 8 ATM.). It may seem weird, but it is possible. It is known that the pressure in the air bubbles, which contains amber, is according to various data, from 8 to 10 atmospheres. It just reflects the state of the atmosphere at the time of hardening resin from which amber was formed. In such a coincidence is hard to believe.

Approximately understandable, and when there was a drop in the density of the atmosphere. Tracescamping is a reference back industrial achievements of mankind for the extraction of salt. The last 100 years is centralized industrial development of several large fields. Rescued us the use of heavy mining equipment. 300...400 years ago production growth salt gave implementation technology evaporation of sea water, or salt water from underground wells.

And all that was previously, for example manual collection in open saline or burning plants, can be called low-efficiency birth of technologies of extraction of salt. Over the last 500...600 years this technology has evolved much faster than the already established forging, pottery and other, which means that its recent birth.

These terms are well placed salt riots of the early 17th century, when salt was tantamount to survival. Before this century, this was not observed. Over time, with the development of technology, the demand was satisfied, the sharpness of the salt question has declined further, we do not see such mass unrest on the subject of salt. That is, in my opinion, the significant drop in the density of the atmosphere could happen in 15...17th centuries.
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