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Viewings: 5323People who do not have scientific degrees in the field of the exact Sciences, it is very difficult to understand why in the 21st century from a destructive natural disasters: earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are killed many people, and science still does not know how to predict. But not even to specialists it is clear that the causes of these disasters are associated, and that most of them occur in areas where the ratio of land and sea is constantly changing, and there is a process of continuous transformations of the Earth's crust.
In ancient myths and legends we find mention of the destructive force of earthquakes. This and the stories of the Bible about the fall of Jericho walls in 1100 B.C. from the thunderous sounds of the sacred pipe. This expertly written in "the Song of Hiawatha" mention of the fall of the heavenly stones (meteorites), and earthquakes in the Rocky mountains. It is a story about the destruction blinded Samson Royal Palace. Three thousand Philistines were buried under its ruins.
The reasons of occurrence of seismic activity of the Earth, like volcanic, should be sought in the deepest bowels of the Earth - the least studied Geology. The main problem in the study is that the deeper the hole 4 km in seismically active zones scientists look failed.
A greater number of large earthquakes occurs in two seismic zones of the Pacific and Mediterranean-TRANS. On the Pacific area accounts for 80% of all earthquakes of the Mediterranean-TRANS - 15%, other 5% occur in the remaining seismic zones.
Since the middle of XX century the USSR, the USA, Japan and China have become actively seek the methodology of forecasting of earthquakes, but the approach to the forecast was different. In the USSR were mainly collected data in seismically active areas. Japan and the US have tried to collect all available geophysical information.
In China, was established army national observers, which in 1975 was predicted destructive earthquake with M 7,3 in the city Haicheng. In the city announced anxiety, most people were evacuated. Strong seismic shock led to the destruction of 90% of all artificial constructions.
But already next year Tanshanskogo the earthquake occurred unexpectedly. Killing hundreds of thousands of people.
Many unconfirmed forecasts have caused huge economic losses, and most predicted earthquakes never happened. Now uses the latest scientific and technical achievements, conducted Earth observation from satellites, but accurate predictions did not appear.
Earthquakes are the most destructive natural disasters. From the effects of seismic activity (fires, destruction of buildings, tsunamis and panic) killed the largest number of people. According to statistics, annually earthquake killed more than 10 thousand people, which is 25 times more than from volcanic eruptions. The strongest seismic tremors only until the mid-XX century has claimed many human lives: in 1923 earthquake in Tokyo - 140 thousand people; in 1946, after the earthquake in Ashgabat - more than 100 thousand people.
Scientists are studying earthquake precursors: water regime, crustal deformation, atmospheric phenomena, the changes of properties of rocks and geomagnetic field, the anomalous behavior of birds and animals.
Because, they were called, earthquakes are divided into four types.
Volcanic. Tremors volcanic earthquakes occur frequently. Seismic activity occurs in the areas of active volcanic activity. As zones of seismic and volcanic activity are often the same, it is very difficult to determine the type of an earthquake. Just about volcanic type earthquakes can speak only in situations where seismic activity is observed simultaneously with the increased activity of the volcano.
The consequences of volcanic earthquakes cover not more than 30-50 km near the volcano, the focus is on small depth, and the epicenter is located near the cone of the volcano. Energy volcanic earthquakes characteristic energy explosions accompanying rapidly proceeding chemical reaction.
Tectonic. The area shock when tectonic earthquakes can apply to 1500-2000 km and seismic waves often ubegayut the entire globe. Consequences consist in change of the earth surface, the emergence of mountains, lakes and valleys, severe destruction of houses and buildings. Energy tectonic earthquakes are comparable with the energy of nuclear reactions.
Most researchers believe that the reason seismic activity of tectonic earthquakes is the discharge voltage, caused by shear, torsion, or slide lithospheric plates relative to each other. The proof of the conjecture is the location of earthquakes along the existing faults. Re faults are the reason for earthquakes. This hypothesis is also confirmed by a higher intensity of transverse waves. If the matter was compressed and stretched without break, greater intensity would have a longitudinal wave.
The most catastrophic earthquakes associated with alteration of Land in the zones young tectonic folding. With the onset of the critical stress formed faults, since the establishment of faults occur seismic tremors. Energy for tremors released at the point of rupture (earthquake), is transmitted through elastic waves in the crust and comes to the surface, destroying everything around. Hypocenters many tectonic earthquakes are located at depths from 10 to 50 km, and some deeper. All the epicenter of the tremors are located on the fault lines of the Earth's crust, and the hypocenters located on the planes of faults, which gradually sink into the Earth.
Denudation. The processes of occurrence of landslides in the destruction of rocks by temperature changes, water and wind called the denudation. Denudation earthquakes caused by external factors, which are controlled by the solar heat. Denuncia is less than 1% of all earthquakes.
Anthropogenic. Safe earthquakes up to 4 points can be caused by anthropogenic causes. For example, a large number of weak tremors were recorded in some States of America after the beginning of shale gas and heavy oil. In both cases, the technology of water hammer with subsequent injection of fluid into the formed cavity. Several fields of production IG were closed to reason why.
Development of oil, gas, coal and diamond deposits can lead to subsidence of various size territories. Since the formation of stresses in the earth's crust is slow, the results of human activity, may be seen only through 500 to 1000 years.
To anthropogenic causes, and also include a small aftershocks following the underground testing of nuclear bombs. Furthermore it is known that a large meteorite fall to the Earth 65 million years ago caused a massive earthquake, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and led to the extinction of 80% of all life on our planet. It was also observed that the rapid decrease or abrupt increase air pressure to operate tremors, particularly in seismically active zones.
Monitoring and scientists are above link seismic activity with the phases of the moon and the Sun. Especially the influence of the Sun and the moon considerably during the time of the Earth at the closest distance from them. Set the increased influence of the moon on the occurrence of earthquakes in a full moon and new moon; there is the link of earthquakes with increasing density radiated by the Sun, solar wind.
The element of earthquakes is reflected mainly where there is an active fault. In the same place catastrophic shocks rarely repeated. For example, until 1948 in Ashgabat of similar magnitude earthquake happened in the XIV century. Seismologists suggest that accumulation time voltage at one point millenniums.
As a result of seismic activity is raising the level of cities such as Stavropol, Tula, and subsidence of Samara, Odessa and Baku. In some big cities simultaneously subsidence one part of the city and raising the other. The Eastern part of Moscow goes down, while the Western part is gradually rising.
American geologist Including Lisa believes that the fault is only the consequence, but seismic activity caused by other reasons, due to deeper processes (e.g. due to sudden changes in volumes of matter, the conductivity of a substance and atomic structure).
But the biggest reason seismic tremors is a movement of the Earth's core, which is also called the inner sun and heart of our planet. Our General "heart" theoretically, we know a lot, and almost anything. Without movement this troublemaker would not have been possible life on Earth. Stop the kernel will cause the disappearance of our planet's magnetic field. The solar wind will be able to freely penetrate to the Earth, vaporizing all the water and volatile substances from the surface of the earth's crust and turning our planet into the wilderness, like Mars.
Movement kernel continuously transform the Earth's surface, and the consequences of these transformations have brought so much suffering to mankind. Scientists have enough knowledge about the causes of natural disasters, carefully study their effects.
I want to believe that in a short time researchers of the Earth withotdadut accurate method of prediction of natural disasters and earthquakes in the first place.
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