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ГеомантияThis word was born in Ancient Greece (from the Greek. geo" -earth, and "Mantica" - art of divination), i.e. geomancy is the fact on the ground, which was also practiced the ancient Indian, Chinese, Chaldean and the Egyptian priests.

In ancient times, no teaching could exist apart from the philosophical views on the nature. According to these concepts, almost everywhere in the East, and later in Ancient Greece believed that the fundament of all are the four elements: earth, water, air and fire. This is where 4 types of divination: geomancy (on the earth), hydromania (on water), aeromancy (by air) and pyromancy (on fire.)
As a doctrine, geomancy has incorporated information from astronomy (astrology), chemistry (alchemy), mathematics, Geology, medicine, and various religious beliefs.

Spirits Of The Earth

The ancient legend says, when people lived in harmony with nature. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato (427-347 biennium, BC) in the "Laws" speaks of Hesiod and his myths about Cronos: "To us there is a legend blessed life of contemporary people, about how they all are in abundance and of itself got. The reason was, they say, is this, Kronos knew that no human nature is not able unlimited edit human Affairs without having to not be filled with arrogance and injustice; conscious of all this, Kronos has set then the kings and rulers of our States are not people, but the demons beings more divine and best of breed" (Plato. "Laws").

According to Plato, people era Kronos lived under the protection of demons or spirits of the Earth. Every region, every part of the landscape were also under the influence of spirits. It was the Golden age. Nostalgia for those blessed times it occurs in the myths and legends of many peoples. Later, as the ancients claimed, people have lost direct contact with the Ground. So geomancy was in their eyes that art which helps to establish harmony between the individual and the surrounding visible (physical) and invisible (spiritual) world.

The basic principles of geomancy different peoples, despite differences in the cultures that were identical. This suggests that at the basis of a General phenomenon. Them was the change of the seasons, which predict the location of the celestial phone So geomancy in contact with astrology: the man and Earth, each particular part of it, was conceived as part of the universe that obey the laws of the Cosmos. Spirits of the Earth were a part of this cosmic cycle; ancient represented their living creatures that feed on solar energy. The earth and the human body, may change with the years, but the spirits of the Earth never change. These views on the nature developed in the middle ages. Famous alchemist XVI century Basili Valentin wrote: "the Earth is not a dead body, it is inhabited by spirits. All around, including minerals, derives its strength from the spirits of the Earth. These spirits are the basis of life, they eat from the stars themselves and in turn nourishes all living things, hidden in the bowels of the earth".

Watching nature, comparing terrestrial and celestial events, ancient noticed that each day of the year corresponds to a particular location heavenly phone from Here it was concluded that each day is under the influence of one or another planet or star, and therefore, the spirits of the Land, on which depends the life of plants and animals that show their activity only in certain periods.

Over time were made agricultural calendars. And as each area has its climatic features, appeared to local calendars, and with them and the local customs, rituals and mythology. Come from far conquerors, of course, brought with them their gods, their cults and rituals, but the natural conditions are not dependent on religious and political upheavals, and the new deity involuntarily was adapted to local conditions.

For the first Christians was somewhat of a policy to build their temple on the site of a pagan sanctuary, and the festivities in honor of the Church of the Holy to coincide in time for the celebrations in honor of his pagan predecessor. Even when 392 the edict of the Emperor Theodosius the Great (about 346-395 years.) pagan religion was banned, superstitious fear caused the former pagan beliefs to live in the liturgical action, in the cult of saints and relics, in worship trees, animals, springs, mountains, hills and natural phenomena. It remained till today.

Since ancient times people have established the boundaries of their possessions (fields, settlements, sanctuaries) with geomancy, it was considered that the borders are protected by the spirits of the Earth. In the Christian epoch the same geomantic methods were applied to ensure that you have correctly installed the boundaries of Church parishes. Custom rooted so deeply that even in England during the reformation (XVI century), when the fanatics have been desecrated temples, ancient ritual survived. In the decree of Queen Elizabeth I (1565) recorded: "...people should once a year together with the priest go round the Church... the priest should in certain convenient places to exhort people to offer up praise to God". These "easy" places were the same, which performed their rituals still pagans.

Places for rituals Gentiles were selected in strict accordance with the laws of geomancy. The ancients believed that the spirits of the Earth are moving on certain channels or veins, like the blood flowing through his veins. And just as the soul of man is in a specific organ in the brain, liver or heart), spirits of the Earth, too, are concentrated in a particular place, where are concentrated all the life-forces. Such places were named "center of the world", or "the navel of the Earth". In such places and arranged disposal, built shrines and temples. In such places was done wonders, and people took a prophetic gift.

The Oracle of Delphi

Everything that is connected with the famous Delphic Oracle, can be attributed to myths, and to the field of historical facts. Legend: when Hercules in a fit of rage, sent to him by the goddess Hero, killed his children, he went to the Holy Delphi to ask what he should do. The Oracle of Delphi predicted Hercules, that he will do 12 of great deeds (subsequently they were glorified by Sophocles).

But the actual events. Ancient Persian king Xerxes (died 465 BC), overwhelmed with greed and revenge of the Greeks for the defeat in the war, sent his troops to plunder these sacred Delphi. But on the way Persians caught a terrible storm is a sure sign of the wrath of the gods - and they turned back. The city was saved. However, later Delphi were looted by the Romans under the command of sulla (82-79 BCE), and later the Emperor Nero (54-68 BCE) was kidnapped from the town 500 bronze statues in retaliation for the fact that Oracle has condemned it as a matricide.

Date of Foundation of the city is unknown. He was considered ancient in the time of Homer (VIII-VII centuries BC). In continuation of 15 centuries BC, Delphi was a place of pilgrimage. From all over the ancient world there flocked people: kings, military leaders and common people, to ask advice, to know the future, the fate of the state or of their own destiny.
After receiving the question, the Delphic priestess - Pythia fell into a deep trance. It was thought that in this state, they come into contact with the invisible spirits and learn from them in the future. Later the method of questioning was romanticized and dramatized by ancient and medieval authors. In fact, he was simple, but included magic rituals, which have remained unknown. The usual questions were recorded on the sheet, and handed it to the priest, who in turn gave it to the woman as a prophetess. The priestess was removed in the sanctuary, sat down on the sacred, gilded tripod, chewed Bay leaves, drank a Cup of water from a spring, and fall into a trance. Very often it is the response been translated into a gekzametrichesky ml.

The power of questioning was connected with the place, on which were located Delphi. An old legend says that one day on one of pastures shepherd was suddenly seized with madness, and he obtained a prophetic gift. Then there began to come other people who wanted to look into the future. Soon began to consider that this area is under the influence of powerful mysterious forces that reach from the earth to the surface. The ancient Greeks associated with the goddess of the land Hero and saw him as a centre - "the navel of the Earth" - the concentration of forces.

After several centuries, the cult of Hera was replaced by the cult of the sun God Apollo. It began to worship the founder of the city. According to myths, young luminous God had entered into combat with dragon Pythonom, killed him and on his grave founded the sanctuary of Apollo to see people the will of his father, Zeus. The place on which laid the temple, was unusual. Plutarch (about 46 about 126 ad), the famous Greek writer and one of the priests of the Delphic Oracle, wrote: "People are exposed to the influence of vapor rising from the ground. Some of evaporation mad, cause disease or death; the others are positive, calming and beneficial". Perhaps the mystery of the Delphic Oracle was poisonous gases that causes hallucinations.

Around the year 390 A.D. the Church was closed by the Roman Emperor Theodosius. Last access Oracle belong to the IV century ad, the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate (332-363,) who had attempted to restore the pagan cults, appealed to the Delphic Oracle, asking him to open the veil of the future. But the Oracle of Delphi replied that he would be be silent, because now the gods were denied access to their world.
Currently in Delphi restoration works are conducted.
Numerous tourists visiting the ancient city, still trying to enquire of fate. But the Oracle silent.

"The Navel Of The Earth"

The belief that there "navel of the Earth ' as the place of concentration of mysterious forces, was distributed among many Nations. Places such as Delphi, there were several. Each of them was connected with the cult of the sun God or hero who comes into mortal combat with the dragon and stabs him with arrows. One such place was in Madagascar. The Oracle of Ramava-Lee ("whoever can answer") was considered to be a ruler and patron of snakes, who were in mountain sacred cave.

Another similar place was in Japanese Hitachi province. In Japanese mythology, the Earth rests on the back of a giant sea monster of Chisin-SVR, movements which cause earthquakes. To calm the Earth, God pricelevel radiating energy in the province of Hitachi.

The Indians believed that "the navel of the Earth" is in Delhi. It represented a huge iron column, established in the IV century. Eight centuries later, around the pole, the mosque was built, and the iron pillar, according to the legends, went deep into the ground and rests on the head Vasuki, king of the snakes.

To know the location of "the navel of the Earth" was considered vital. The ancients believed that the use of the mysterious forces of the Earth contributes to the prosperity of the state, the loss leads to the decline. Over time, the worship was concentrated on the stone, which, being in the heart of a specific location, for centuries absorbed the force of the Earth.

Author: Vedeneeva
Source: "Interesting newspaper. The world of the unknown" №7
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