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Viewings: 11532Russian scientists have confirmed that the elements necessary for building planets, space provide universal catastrophe
The data that produced the orbital Observatory INTEGRAL in 2003-2011 allowed to conclude that heavy elements heavier than carbon and oxygen is really formed in the Universe only through supernova explosions. The way things are at the final stage of the existence of stars when their cores collapse under its own weight, explode and scatter in all directions outer shell, thus saturating space synthesized over the past life elements. Supernova, thereby enriching the interstellar medium silicon, calcium, iron and other elements, has made possible the formation of terrestrial planets and the origin of life.
Scientists from the space research Institute of Russian Academy of science (IKI RAS) together with colleagues from the European centre of space research and technologies of the European space Agency (ESA) was watching the processes taking place in the Large Magellanic Cloud. And with orbital Observatory, INTEGRAL, has registered the hard x-ray emission from supernova remnant SN1987А in lines radioactive decay of titanium-44. In other words, for the first time managed to get direct evidence of education titanium at the time of the supernova explosion. Experts have determined that this metal was formed on 6 ten in 26-th degree kilograms. It's about 100 of the earth's mass.
If to consider, that in the earth's crust of Titan contains about 0.5 percent, its quantity, synthesized at the supernova explosion SN1987А, would be enough for the construction of 20 thousand such planets like ours.
By the WAY
The Observatory INTEGRAL - anniversary: 10 years in orbit
Through the dust of time and space
International astrophysics Observatory INTEGRAL was withdrawn on vysokopatogennogo orbit on October 17, 2002 in 4 hours 41 GMT from Baikonur cosmodrome. As a means of deducing was used by the Russian carrier rocket "proton" State research and production space center. M.V. Khrunichev with upper stage block DM Rocket and space Corporation "Energy" im. S. p. Korolev. Excretion Observatory on highly-elliptical orbit, proposed and designed by Russian scientists, was fulfilled with accuracy much better (much) guaranteed quantities that significantly reduce fuel consumption while forming the final orbit and, as consequence, to increase the lifetime of the Observatory from 5 years to 21 years. According to calculations, fuel onboard the satellite should be enough until 2023.
The Observatory INTEGRAL is the largest joint project of the space agencies of Europe (ESA), Russia (Roscosmos) and the USA (NASA). Thanks to her eyes researchers opened universe x-ray and gamma ranges of electromagnetic radiation.
Photons hard x-ray range (more than 15 kiloelectron-volt or Kev) have high penetrating power, that is able to go through a rather large column of the substance. This has disadvantages: these photons is difficult to focus, and its advantages: astrophysical objects that are hidden from us by the shell of dust and gas, or interstellar matter in the plane of the Galaxy, visible in hard x-rays.
Black holes under the supervision
The name of the INTEGRAL is the abbreviation for "international Astrophysical Laboratory of Gamma-Rays" (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory INTEGRAL).
X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy is studying the properties and behavior of matter under conditions that are impossible to reproduce in the laboratory at extremely high temperatures, under the action of superstrong gravitational and magnetic fields. Objects of study - explosions and supernova remnants, relativistic compact objects (objects with a large mass and very small size: neutron stars, black holes, white dwarfs), antimatter annihilation, the glow of the interstellar medium under the action of cosmic rays of high energy and other "stormy" processes of our Universe. Earth's atmosphere is an insurmountable obstacle on the path of x-ray and gamma photons, so astrophysical research directly in this energy range are held on Board of the spacecraft.
The Observatory INTEGRAL is one of the most advanced tools for the study of the Universe in hard x-rays and gamma rays. At its creation has been the experience obtained by x-ray telescopes module KVANT orbital station MIR and space Observatory GRENADES, created in Russia in a wide international cooperation.
The main advantages of the Observatory INTEGRAL:
- a large field of view of a device at a good angular resolution and high sensitivity. This combination allows to conduct surveys of large areas of the sky and to distinguish individual sources in such densely populated areas of the sky, as the plane of the Galaxy and its centre;
- wide energy range extending from the energies of several Kev to several million electron volts. This allows you to receive information about the thermal and non-thermal processes in relativistic compact sources, and therefore, to understand their physics;
- record the energy resolution of the devices at energies above 20 Kev. Because of this INTEGRAL is (and will remain for years) the best Observatory for the study of emission lines resulting from the decay of radioactive elements in our and our closest neighbouring galaxies. Observation of these lines is the most important way to study the composition and evolution of matter in the Universe.
All that is interesting and mysterious
Russia's participation in the INTEGRAL project was initiated by academician Rashid Sunyaev - the main scientific employee of IKI. He was the scientific Director of the project from our country.
Russian scientists have the exclusive right to use 25 percent of observational time Observatory.
Academician Rashid Sunyaev. Scientific supervisor of the project "ITEGRAL". Awarded the medal of the Franklin in physics for 2012 for "fundamental to the understanding of the early Universe and the properties of black holes"
For the Observatory INTEGRAL for the first time in Russia has implemented the principle of national Observatory. This means that any scientist from any Russian research Institute or University can apply for observations of any object and, if approved, to obtain data for further processing and analysis.
All the scientific data obtained in the framework of the Russian quota of observational time, become available for Russian scientists through the Russian science data Center (RCNT) Observatory INTEGRAL is organized in space research Institute of RAS with the support of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Foundation for basic research. The total amount of scientific data Observatory is several tens of terabytes. Data continue to be received in real-time at a speed of about 2 gigabytes per day.
Russian scientists have made a decisive contribution to the receipt and publication of the most important results of the Observatory: in 10 years there were published more than 130 papers in the leading Russian and foreign journals ("Letters in the Astronomical journal, Nature, Astrophysical Journal, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Astronomy & Astrophysics, etc.), published several dozen astronomical telegrams and circulars, 9 protected dissertations. The work of Russian scientists, based on data from the Observatory, INTEGRAL, have already gathered more than 2,200 references in scientific journals around the world that shows that these works and the received results are widely recognized and used by scientists all over the world in their work.
What else is allowed to make INTEGRAL
Maps of the entire sky with unprecedented sensitivity in the field of the galactic plane and dedicated extragalactic fields. Analysis of the obtained maps allowed to open more than three hundred new hard x-ray sources, more than doubled the number of known objects in the sky.
Found new types of galactic x - ray sources of neutron stars in cocoons of dust and gas, and flashing neutron stars in binary systems with supergiants.
Explanations of the nature of diffuse emission of the galaxy in the hard x-ray range - resolved issue of the so-called x-ray "ridge" of the Galaxy (Galactic ridge); by observation Observatory INTEGRAL is shown that the radiation in the energy range 17-80 Kev created a large number accretively, that is peredelyvaemyh on the matter from the companion star, white dwarfs in binary stellar systems.
With great accuracy measured energy nuclear lines on the energies 511 (line annihilation of positrons) and 1809 Kev line decay of radioactive aluminium-26,) and maps of the radiation intensity in these lines.
It is proved that a supermassive black hole at the core of our Galaxy has been active in the recent past - about 300 years ago.
Composed of a representative sample of active supermassive black holes in the nuclei of nearby galaxies, discovered that they are unevenly distributed through the volume in the near Universe, thus reflecting the distribution of matter in General.
With great accuracy measured the cosmic background radiation in the hard x-ray range.
Open a new class of weak gamma-suPleskov.
Open non-thermal mechanisms of radiation from neutron stars with super-strong magnetic fields (magnetron) and black holes.
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