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Viewings: 5566Today I will take up the topic, which is already utterly beaten, but still steadily POPs up in almost any discussion of the Runet, where referred to "Mars" and "NASA". Let's talk about the color of Mars. You know, many have this theme is sitting in the liver like me, but I took it that's why. It is necessary once and for all sort through all the arguments and set the record straight.
First, let's understand all the main arguments of supporters of the theory "of Nesaskrieties". The evidence they had not much, but if they are not explain any doubts about even the person far from conspiracy.
Popular method of conspirologic is to nigergate facts, ignore the explanations and present under its interpretation. Therefore it is necessary only to show how manipulative all these conspiracy theories. Yes, I think that the initiators of these revelations conspiracies understand the absurdity, but the Twoness is a valuable resource in the Russian Internet, which can be converted to traffic and hundreds of links to your website or youtube channel.
So, let's start.
This whole story and hysteria began when in large numbers began to come pictures from the Mars Rover twin Spirit and Opportunity. Someone thought it strange that on Mars Burgundy soil and beige sky, and he saw the official photo, landing platform Spirit.
"What is it?" "gasped the then American Twoness, not able to read the descriptions below the photo - "Why is the emblem of the NASA deep red, not blue?".
Why indeed? Will not be the same NASA's so stupid to palitsya: to hide the true color of Mars (let miss a party to the question what for is it needed at all), and leave the color of hint that any conspiracy could expose the conspiracy.
But just something I had to look the description of pictures and see what these frames are made using a red filter, and infrared. Colored pictures on the Rovers-the twins were created by shooting black and white camera through different color filters. There on each camera was seven filters with different wavelength which is a bit different on the right and the left, among which was red and was infrared.
A bit of theory: a colored frame turns out, if you can shoot through three filters: red, green, and blue (RGB format: red, green, blue), and then three frames to unite in Photoshop having one color.
In some cases, NASA used not red filter, and infrared. Need this was in order to get extended information about the properties of the soil and of the studied objects. Because the camera Rover is primarily a scientific instrument and then the tool for entertainment taxpayers. Now panorama, with a landing platform Spirit has photographed using infrared filter. But the platform Opportunity removed with the use of red in the normal colors that you can see the difference.
The NASA logo is not visible, but the blue tape™ immediately catches the eye. But if you look at the difference in the soil at these two photos, it is not so significant. Through infrared she "redder", but on the original green grass and blue sky still be seen.
The feature of the receipt of color images through three filters has caused another accusation NASA that they put a lot of black and white pictures and very little color. First, the "little colored" that is nonsense, because even before the Curiosity published thousands of colored frames Spirit and Opportunity, and dozens of huge 360-degree panoramas. Secondly, laying crude black-and-white frames taken through color filters, NASA gives everyone the opportunity to independently produce color images of Mars. But Conspirology learn Photoshop only to functions Autocolor, which they "restore the true color of Mars, and the subtleties of working with color channels unknown to them.
The following argument adherents of the doctrine "marakasy" is a BBC report on the work of specialists NASA. On the subject of the transfer, a scholar sitting at work laptop, then to his office includes journalists, and something ask.
But a conspiracy shouted "yeah!" and pokes at the monitors behind scientist, and there's no red Mars, and blue sky. More than strange looks organization of conspirators global scale, where journalists with cameras quietly strolling through the rooms, looking much like it. But don't think about it, those who want to catch NASA on lies.
So what is on the monitor? There is depicted the plot Cape Verde Victoria crater, which investigated the Opportunity.
NASA scientists use treatment under earthly conditions lighting in order to facilitate the identification of rocks stones that meet the Rovers. Because the eyes of geologists familiar to terrestrial environment, and the changing colors of the Martian are taken in the same direction. And these pictures are not secret.
Here is Cape St. Mary located near Cape Verde
And it is generally vigorous Cape St. Vincent.
Or crater Santa Maria, who Opportunity drove last year
And here is a photo obtained using 13 color filters.
Imagine what would happen if the journalists caught scientist for editing this photographerAI? "NASA secret that the Rovers landed on a rainbow!"
Just in the published photos are always specified explanation of the type: It is presented in false color to accentuate differences in surface materials. Or in the case of this rosy picture: The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. But those who can see the traces everywhere of the conspiracy, not able to read.
In addition, Conspirology, apparently, do not know about the existence of dust. Otherwise not taking another proof of the conspiracy NASA this photo here.
This memorial flag, placed in memory of the victims of 9/11 on the manipulator Opportunity. And attention is drawn to the fact that it seems as if he is tinted red. Conspirology think it's evidence of use of the red filter, although it's just a red Martian dust. The frame is made in 2011, and to see pictures taken in 2004 in the beginning of operations research, 31 Sol (Martian day), then there is a clean flag in the usual colors.
When a large portrait of Curiosity, there is also some tried to search for traces of the conspiracy.
"Something emblem NASA just grey, blue and she only they, too, had forgotten about the dust. The MSL landing was made not by using pressurized water cocoons, as in previous Rovers and using Sky Crane, so that he in the dust was soiled from the first seconds to Mars.
Still tell a story about how he was received the first image of Mars Viking lander 1.
In the book, the authors argue that Mars is life, and NASA, this hides (Mars: The Living Planet, by B. Di Gregorio, G. and P. Levin Straat, Frog Ltd, Berkeley, 1997) is the story about the circumstances of receiving the first shot. According to their testimonies, JPL brought together journalists, everywhere put color TVs and getting a picture from Mars immediately put him on the screens. On the photograph was allegedly blue sky and green spots on the rocks. After that, according to the description in the book, NASA experts ran from monitor to monitor, remove, the color setting to photograph the Mars was in red colours. To check the veracity of this story it is now impossible, but there are two illustrative points: first, colour frame Viking turned out as well as on the Rovers-twins - by combining three black-and-white images, so there was no signal from Mars, which should have been immediately displayed on monitors; secondly, if the monitors were broadcast the image in the next office, where he made the color mixing frame, then not it be easier to replace it with "red" and continue broadcasting, than to attract attention, being engaged in adjustment of monitors on everyone eyes?
Thanks hysteria blowing Conspirology, many began to agitate the question: so what color Mars and the Martian sky really is? Let's face it.
The main culprit red Mars - iron oxides, or just rust. The Martian crust was very rich in iron ore. For example, plateau Meridiani where rides Opportunity simply covered with hematite - iron balls formed in shallow waters or groundwater.
Under the influence of water in an oxidizing atmosphere iron turns into rust, which, as you may know those who work with metal, easily becomes delicate fine-dispersed dust. And liquid water on the planet was once a long time, so time to blush at Mars was. According to observations by NASA's all dust on Mars have magnetic properties, i.e. contains traces of iron.
Martian dust storms drive even where the iron in the soil, not so much. For example, in the Gale crater, the landing place of Curiosity jet landing craft blew the dust, and revealed a gray surface.
But in a few days, everything has returned to its usual red picture.
But in General, the scenery there is lighter than on the plateau Meridiani.
Similarly, covered with dust and the Rover, so considering it the color markers and housing, or trying to restore the "true color", it is necessary to consider, that on it the red Martian dust.
To touch the subtleties of color calibration white balance here I don't want to. We tried, but the results I'm not happy and are already used to the raw (raw) colors Curiosity.
Let me just say that colour cameras Curiosity, unlike predecessors have standard Bayer color filter CCD matrix Kodak KAI-2020, so take off as a regular SLR camera. The difference in the color depends on the setting of white balance. But on Earth adjusting the color balance of the camera made by people who knew what it will look like this or that color under varying color temperatures. Mars is still not there, so no one could say "This is the color right" and the slight variations in color have the place to be. For supporters of the theory that NASA removes all through a red filter to hide green Mars, will share the secret of that raw images Curiosity just a small break in the yellow-green.
So looks like Mars from space much easier. We have pictures of the "Viking"
If someone doesn't trust NASA can look photos of the European satellite Mars Express
Photo in the beginning of the article it too.
Or even the Soviet Mars-5"
The last satellite of MRO relieves in the enhanced colors, so its personnel "true" 't call it light grey as ultramarine looks, and dark grey as the deep blue. But to go to admire the photo on the official site of everything.
But with the Martian atmosphere and the color of the sky is more interesting. If we turn again to the Martian pictures "Hubble", many of them you can see the blue of the atmospheric envelope of Mars.
For conspirologic this is proof of the Martian conspiracy, they say that's the evidence of the blue Martian sky. Sympathizers forget that the Hubble and the Rovers are controlled by the same jet propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA. Therefore seems strange that those peacefully publish compromising information about themselves. But the logic and Conspirology never been friends, so continue.
The problem of the blue Martian atmosphere is that she is too thin. The atmosphere of Mars is from 1% to 0.75% of the Earth's atmosphere - the seasons affect density. The pressure on the surface of Mars, such as the height of 30-40 km above the Earth. Accordingly, the sky there must be the same. When Felix Baumgartner jumped all could see what was there the sky is clear day.
Or recently, the Spanish launched a prototype of a tourist stratospheric 32 km
But black sky on Mars. So what's the deal? And the solution is in the same Martian rusty dust. It is very small, dry, and gravity is weaker there three times, because of this dust can get quite high even when there are no dust storms. Even on Mars clouds are of three types: water (ice), carbon dioxide (also ice and dust.
Thanks dust color of the Martian sky has different shades from pink to beige, and in a storm and brown. And in calm weather darkens considerably to the Zenith.
(Shooting Viking1 Lander, sol 1742 - dust storm)
At sunset and sunrise occurs unique chance to see the blue sky of Mars.
The color of the sky on the Earth depends on the Rayleigh scattering. Short-wave part of the spectrum from violet to blue dissipated in the air, turning our sky. When sunlight passes through a thicker layer of air - at sunset - scattering exposed and the longer waves up to red, to which we owe our red sunsets. On Earth the sun's light at the horizon passes 38 times thicker layer of air than in the Zenith, and one can imagine a comparable scale and on Mars. But there the thickness of only lets you see the blue in the sky, as we have clear day, and even then only around the drive itself. And a little further to dissipate in time only purple wave.
Unfortunately, the Curiosity until shot of sunrise and sunset, but there is an explanation. Unlike previous Rovers, who worked on the plain, "curious" is in a deep crater. It is surrounded by mountains, behind which the sun is hiding not having time to fade until the moment when it can be removed without solar filter without fear of damaging the matrix of the camera too intense light.
Maybe the danger of this light and would not be fatal, especially recently, when passed local dust storm, but NASA is reinsured and takes only through "welding mask.
(black dot is Deimos)
That's when Curiosity will climb the mountain and can look beyond the crater, then there is hope to see a sunset or sunrise in high quality, but wait this is still at least a year.
In conclusion I would like to say that the color of Mars is almost as volatile indicator as on Earth. Mars has no oceans and green spaces, but the time of year, time of day, weather, geological structure surrounding rocks affect what colors will be in this or that area at one time or another. To accuse NASA of conspiracy meaningless, if not it we would still drew Martians floating in their junks on channels around the rice fields. Of course, there was a Soviet research program, there's Mars Express, but 90% of the information we know about Mars we know, thanks to NASA. And to check the reliability of their information is sufficient to know the school course of physics and be able to read.
Literally three days after publishing this post Curiosity sent a survey of the Martian sky at the Zenith. Shooting for 101 Sol, when the Rover has covered the distant echoes of dust storms. Visibility was reduced from 30 to 10 km, but still Zenith darker. The white edge of the left - close to the Sun.
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