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Падение золотой империи инковIn the XIV - XVI centuries on the Western coast of South America to spread the power of the mighty "Golden Empire". Thanks to the guidance of talented architects and engineers public life of the Incas have reached a very high level. The territory of the state covered all the land from the southern regions of modern Colombia to Argentina and reached a length of 5, 000 kilometers. The Incas believed that they had conquered almost the whole world, and the land that remained outside of their country, was not, in their opinion, any value. However, in another part of the world nobody even knew about the existence of their state.

Archaeological finds indicate that the Incas were preceded by other developed culture. They existed for hundreds and thousands of years before the Incas. Archeologists divide culture Lambek, Chavin, Mochica, Cime and Tiahuanaco.

These ancient peoples worshiped in various animal - Jaguar, Puma and fish. In addition, it was widely worship of the gods of the mountains. Found pottery show that some of the tribes there was a cult of voluptuousness. In the temple, built by one of the tribes near lake Titicaca in the mountains (on the border of Peru and Bolivia)were found phalloide items - they worshipped during the rituals of fertility to get from Pacha Mama (mother earth) good harvest.

As the people of the Incas was formed around the year 1200. Historian Garcilaso de La VEGA, the son of a Spanish Conquistador-landowner and Incan Princess, writes that, according to legend, the sun God sent his son Manco of kapaka, which became the first Inka, together with his sister (and at the same time the bride) to lake Titicaca to teach all to worship the sun. This legend is still tell the children in school.

However, if you leave the myths and refer to reality, we learn that the Incas, probably descended from the tribe of Tiahuanaco, who lived in the region of lake Titicaca. Growing Incan the state appropriated achieve conquer tribes, Ostrava and improving their channels and terraces. The Incas had built Grand buildings. There are many assumptions concerning how the Incas managed to build a fortress-temple Sacsahuaman, which rises on a hill in the city of Cusco. It is built of stone blocks weighing a hundred tons. During the construction have not used any fastening solution. However, these walls of the ancient Cuzco, built of carefully hewn and finely-tuned to each other stones, even during earthquakes practically has not suffered.

In the temple of the capital of Cusco, built of polished stones, the priests worshipped the sun. From the inside the walls of the temple were decorated with gold and silver. The most beautiful girls from up to eight years, have had special training to serve "virgins, intended for the sun". Archaeological excavations show that the Incas did and human sacrifice. They brought children to the victim APU - gods of the mountains. On the peaks of the Andes were found frozen bodies of children.

Although neither the Incas, neither preceded them tribes had no written language, they have created a special way to store messages - the so-called stack. Stack used by those who was instructed to keep the memory about the various estimates and events and "consisted of a system cords of different thickness and different colors. Number and other data were transmitted to the knots of various sizes" ("Archeological dictionary", U. Bray, D. trump).

The power of the centralized state grew through firm policy and strict laws. The basic requirement for all subjects had knowledge Quechua - language of the Incas. In this language and to this day say five million people who live in the mountains of Peru, and millions more people in five other countries that were formerly part of the state of the Incas. The population of the areas to the South-East of lake Titicaca speak Aymara, which originated from the Quechua, - it was spoken predecessors of the Incas.

The Quechua rallied more than a hundred conquered by the Incas tribes, and of the Kura villages (leaders) with a single language was much easier to control these Nations. Each family received an allotment. Conquering any nation, Inka not only forbade received from local residents dances and festivals, but even arranged for them performances and games, wishing that his subjects were satisfied.

The state had no money unit, and therefore the gold itself was not for the residents of no value. Dearly because it reflects the sun. The only duty - Mita, which in Quechua means "sequence" - was alternately part in the construction of national roads and various buildings. Thousands of Indians were called by the law for such work.

Using Indians worked through the mit, the Incas built a network of roads with a length of more than 24 000 miles! This system stone roads, construction of which began in Cusco, connected the capital with the most distant districts of the state. Roads used by specially trained couriers - Casci. Along the road at a distance of three kilometers from each other was located huts for these couriers. Once chaski, bearing the news, come to the hut, it was followed by another. And so, replacing each other, they ran up to 240 kilometers per day. The ruling also Inka for a short time, received information from all parts of the state.

Along the roads were located warehouses. Food and clothing that there were preserved, were for the armies of the Incas, who aggressive campaigns. To the extent possible Incas tried to avoid wars. Using a political move they sent to one or another tribe ambassadors and offered to submit to his rule and to accept the cult of the sun. If the family agreed, he was allowed to continue to live in their villages, but under the supervision of trained for this work Incan leaders. If the tribe refused the offer terms, the ruthless invaders conquered his power. From the skulls of dead enemies Incas drank the Cheech - intoxicating corn drink.

During the reign of Pachacuti, Incas IX (1438), his son Tupac Inca, yupanki and Vajna of kapaka who was entrusted with the conduct of hostilities, the ownership of the state have grown rapidly and reached its greatest extent from North to South. But soon came the change.

Around 1530 Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro, having learned from the stories about the Golden treasures of Peru, moved there from Panama together with his army - Peru at the time was weakened by internecine war. Ataualpa, heading to the capital, the defeated Prince Askarom, his half-brother and heir to the throne, and took him prisoner.

Pissarro and his soldiers, eventually she reached the city of Cajamarca in the heart of the country, were cordially received by Atawallpa. However, the Spaniards, the trick taking him prisoner, was deprived of his throne and killed thousands of its soldiers, who were not ready to fight back.

However, even the captivity did not prevent Atawallpa continue internecine war. He sent in Cuzco messengers to kill his half-brother Incu of Mascara and hundreds of other members of the Royal family. He, without knowing it, played into the hands of Pizarro.

Noting that the Spaniards are not indifferent to gold and silver, Atawallpa promised in exchange for his release to give Pissarro so much gold and silver statues that they could fill a room. But the plan Atawallpa failed. After the promised redemption was paid, Ataualpa, Inka XIII, was baptized as a Catholic, and then strangled.

The capture and killing of Atahualpa was a deadly blow to the state of the Incas. However, the Indians continued to struggle, and this struggle lasted for 40 years.

When reinforcements arrived, Pizarro and his men rushed to Cuzco, city of untold treasures of the Incas. Driven by the thirst for gold, Spaniards brutally tortured Indians, to find out from them the secrets of the hidden treasures.

Accompanied Prince Manco II, who was the brother of Mascara and had to go next Inka (Manco Inca Yanka), Pizarro and his men broke into Cusco and plundered all gold treasures. A large part of Golden statues they melted down into ingots and sent to Spain. It is not surprising that the Spanish ships, full of treasures of Peru, have been desirable target for British pirates! Himself Pizarro, nagrubil a lot of good, went on the coast of the mainland and in 1535 founded a new capital city, Lima.

Seeing how greedy and treacherous conquerors, Manco Inca Yupanqui revolted. Flashed and other revolts against Spain, but in the end, the Indians still had to retreat and Mature in more remote areas. One of the places where it was hiding Indians, was the sacred city of Machu Picchu, located in the mountains.

Last Inka was Tupac Amaru (1572), the son of Manco Inca, Opanki. At this time in Peru ruled Spanish Viceroy. Viceroy Toledo decided whatever was to destroy the Incas. Having collected a large army, he went to the region Uilcapampa. In the jungle Tupac Amaru was arrested. Together with his pregnant wife was taken to Cuzco - they expect the death penalty. The executioner was an Indian from es Canar. One strike - and Inka was beheaded, in this moment there was a mournful sigh of thousands of Indians gathered on the market square. His aides were tortured to death or hanged. So quickly and violently put an end to the rule of the Incas.
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