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Физика невозможного - ТелепортацияTeleportation, or the ability to move people and objects from one place to another, is a skill that can change the direction of development of civilization and to influence the destinies of countries and peoples. So, teleportation once and for all would change the principles and rules of warfare: by mastering the art, military leaders would instantly throw troops in the rear of the enemy, or simply teleport the enemy's guide in a convenient place and grab it. Transport system of today, cars, ships, airplanes and Railways together with serving their numerous industries - immediately obsolete least; we could just teleport from home to work and be instantly transported cargo and goods to the right place. Vacation would cease to be a problem - we can easily teleportuojasi would directly to a place of rest, Teleportation would change everything.

The earliest mention of the teleportation is possible to find[7] in religious texts, for instance in the Bible where the spirits now and then transferred people from place to place. For example, this passage from the acts of the apostles of the New Testament implies, apparently, teleportation Philip from Gaza in Nitrogen.

"When they came up out of the water, the Holy Spirit fell on the eunuch and Philip admired the angel of the Lord, and the eunuch did not see him, and he went on his way rejoicing. But Philip was found at Azotus : and passing through he preached in all the cities, till he came to Caesarea (Acts 8:39-40).

Teleportation - among other tricks and illusions are included in the repertoire of any magician: rabbits out of hats, map of sleeves, coins of his ear unsuspecting audience. One of the most impressive tricks recently, the disappearance of an elephant in front of the astonished audience. It looks as follows. A huge elephant weighing several tons placed in a cell. The wave of a magic wand - and the elephant vanishes, to the great astonishment of the public. (Of course, actually the elephant is not going away. The trick is done by mirrors. The cage you put an elephant, not simple. Behind each rod has a mirror - a long, narrow, vertical mirror. Each of these mirrors can be rotated around the vertical axis. In the beginning, when the mirrors are deployed across and kinda hidden behind the bars of the cage, the audience can not see them - but you can see the elephant in the cell. But when the mirrors at the command of the illusionist rotate 45 degrees to the audience stunned viewers can only stare at the reflected image of the side wall of the cell, for which there is no elephant.)
Teleportation and science fiction

The first mention of teleportation in science fiction work we find in the story of Edward Mitchell page "Man without a body", published in 1877 In this story some scientist have discovered a way to parse the cat on the atoms I pass them on the Telegraph wires. Unfortunately, at the moment when the scientist tried to teleport himself, stopped the supply. As a result of successfully teleportuojasi only his head.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Creator of the famous Sherlock Holmes[8], was fascinated with the idea of teleportation. By writing a large number of detective stories and novels about the adventures of Sherlock Holmes, he is tired of his character and finally finished him off, forcing together with Professor Moriarty fall down in the gorge at Reyhenbahskogo waterfall. But indignation readers was so great that Doyle had to raise the detective. Not being able to get rid of Sherlock Holmes Doyle instead decided to create a completely new character. He became Professor Challenger, almost double Holmes. Both characters had a keen mind and observation and loved to solve puzzles. But when Holmes opened complicated criminal cases by means of cold deductive logic, Professor Challenger explored the dark world of spiritualism and paranormal phenomena, including teleportation.

In the novel "the Disintegration machine", published in 1927, the Professor met with the inventor of the machine that is able to parse person, and assemble it again somewhere in other place. But then the inventor boastful claims that in a bad hands of his machine may at the touch of a button to destroy entire cities with millions of inhabitants. Professor Challenger in horror. The novel ends with the fact that he is using the machine parses the inventor and leaves the lab, "forgetting" to collect it again.

A little later teleportation discovered and Hollywood. Published in 1958 film "Mukha" clearly demonstrates what can happen if the process of teleportation will go wrong. Some scientist successfully teleports himself within the room, but by ill chance, its atoms are mixed with atoms flies, by accident, in a teleportation laboratory. In the scientist turns into a grotesque monster - half-man, half bolumunu. (In 1986, he released a remake of this movie with Jeff Goldblum in the main role.)

The TV series " Star trek" did teleportation noticeable phenomenon of mass culture. Its Creator gene Roddenberry was forced to enter teleportation in the plot, since the budget is Paramount did not provide expensive special effects associated with imitation of start and landing rocket ships on Earth and distant planets. It was cheaper to simply pass the crew of "enterprise" to the destination will receive.

Over the past decades, scientists have managed to make a lot of arguments in favor of that teleportation is impossible in principle. To teleport man, you must know the exact location of each atom in a living body - and this, perhaps, would violate the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (which States that it's impossible to know the exact position and velocity of an electron). The producers of Star trek, bending before the critics, set in a teleportation camera Heisenberg compensators" - you would think that the laws of quantum physics could be corrected with the help of any additional unit in the device teleporter! But it turns out that the creators of the film at all hastened with the introduction of the "Heisenberg compensators". Perhaps scientists and critics of the past years was wrong.
Teleportation and quantum theory

In the framework of Newton's theory teleportation frankly impossible. Newton's laws are based on the idea that matter is composed of tiny solid billiard balls. Objects do not come in the movement, if not push; objects are not disappear suddenly and does not appear again in another place.

But in the quantum theory of particles is able to do such tricks. Newton's laws stayed in power 250 years and was overthrown in 1925, when Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrodinger and their colleagues developed the quantum theory. Analyzing the strange properties of atoms, physicists have found that the electron behaves as a wave, and in seeming randomness of their movement within the atom can make quantum leaps.

Most closely with the concept of a quantum waves associated Vienna physicist Erwin Schroedinger, Creator of the famous wave equation that bears his name, is one of the most important equations of physics and chemistry. The whole College courses devoted to the solution of this famous equation; entire walls physical libraries are occupied by books, which are investigated in detail his in-depth investigation. In principle, the entire amount of knowledge in chemistry can be reduced to the solution of this equation.

In 1905, Einstein showed that the light waves can behave like particles; this means that they MOiyr be described as packets of energy called photons. But around 1920 Schroedinger became obvious that the opposite is also true: particles, such as electrons can behave like waves. This idea was first expressed by the French physicist Louis de Broglie, awarded for this hypothesis Nobel prize. (We at the University demonstrate that students. To do this, we shoot sick and fast electrons in a cathode ray tube, exactly like in the TV. The electrons pass through the tiny hole, so that the screen seems to be a small point of light. Instead, you will find there are concentric wavy circles - just like what you can expect when passing through the opening of the waves, not particles.)

Somehow Schroedinger lectured about this curious phenomenon. One of those present in the hall fellow physicist Peter Debye was asked: "If an electron can be described as a wave; how it looks wave equation?"

Since Newton created differential calculus, physics described any wave in the language of differential equations, so Schroedinger perceived the question Debye as a challenge and decided to write the differential equation for the electron wave. In the same month Schroedinger went on vacation and came back with a ready equation. As Maxwell took physical fields of Faraday and brought the Maxwell equations for light, Schroedinger took the particle-wave of de Broglie and brought Schrodinger equation for electrons.

(Historians of science have spent considerable effort trying to figure out exactly where he was and what he did Schroedinger when he opened his famous equation that will forever change modern physics and chemistry. It turned out that Schrodinger was an advocate of free love and the rest often went with his wife and mistress. He also kept a detailed diary, in which is recorded all his numerous mistresses and complex cipher meant every meeting. Currently, it is believed that the outputnye when you opened the equation, Schrodinger held in the Alps, at the Villa "Herwig", with one of her girlfriends.)

Having started to solve his equation for the hydrogen atom, Schroedinger, much to his surprise, found that the energy levels of electrons already before him were well established and published by other physicists. Then he realized that the old model of the atom, owned by Niels Bohr, - the one where electrons are worn around the nucleus, and which still draw in books and brochures as a symbol of modern science is actually incorrect. Circular orbits of electrons around the nucleus of the atom must be replaced with the waves.

We can say that the work of the Schrodinger shook physics community and, like a thrown stone, also gave rise to be moving waves. Physics suddenly found that I could look directly in the atom, examine the details of the waves that make up his shell, and accurately forecast their energy levels.

But there was still one question which does not give physicists peace even today. If the electron is described as a wave, what it varies? The answer to this question was given by the physicist Max born; he said that these waves are nothing like the waves of probability. They report only about how likely you'll find a particular electron at a certain time at a certain point. In other words, the electron is a particle, but the probability to find the particle is given by Schrodinger wave. And the higher wave, the more chances to find a particle of it at this point.

It turns out that suddenly in the heart of physics - science, which was previously given us an accurate prediction and detailed trajectory of any objects, ranging from planets and comets to cannonballs, were the concepts of chance and probability.

Heisenberg was able to formalize this fact by offering the uncertainty principle[9] the premise that it is impossible to know the exact speed and exact position of the electron in the same moment. It is impossible to precisely define and his energy in a given period of time. At the quantum level are violated all the fundamental laws of common sense: the electrons can disappear and re-emerge elsewhere, and to be simultaneously in several places.

(Ironically, Einstein, the godfather of quantum theory, participated in the revolutionary transformation of 1905, and Schroedinger, author of the wave equation, fled in terror from the appearance of random processes in fundamental physics. Einstein wrote: "Quantum mechanics is much respected. But an inner voice tells me that it's not what you need. This theory explains a lot, but it hardly brings us something about the mystery of God. At least about myself I can say for sure: I am convinced that He does not play dice".)

The theory of the Heisenberg was a revolutionary and controversial, but it worked. With its help physicists managed in one fell swoop to explain the huge number of enigmatic phenomena, including the laws of chemistry. Explaining her graduate students strangeness and the strangeness of quantum theory, I sometimes ask them to calculate the probability that the atoms of their bodies suddenly run away and would meet again on the other side of a brick wall. Like teleportation prohibited in Newtonian physics, but in no way contrary to the laws of quantum mechanics. The answer, however, is that such an event would have to wait until the end of life the universe and even longer. (If you are using your computer has built schedule Shredingera wave function for your own body, what you would find that it is very much like the body itself, but it looks as if little shaggy, as some of your waves spread beyond it in all directions. Some of them reach even distant stars. Therefore, there is still a tiny chance that one day you will suddenly Wake up at the distant alien planet.)

The fact that electrons, apparently, can be in many places at the same time, is the Foundation of all of chemistry. We think that electrons revolve around the nucleus of an atom as the body of a miniature Solar system. But between the atom and the Solar system there are fundamental differences. In a collision in space of two Solar systems they will inevitably collapse, the planet will throw in different directions. Atoms also faced, often share with each other electrons and form quite stable molecules. In high school, the teacher often said to the disciples about "spread electron", resembling an elongated Rugby ball; he connects the two atoms between themselves.

But that's what chemistry teachers almost never tell the disciples. Electron in question, not "spread" between two atoms. In fact, this "Rugby ball" represents the probability that the electron is simultaneously in many places inside of this volume. In other words, the whole of chemistry, studying and explaining the structure of molecules that make up our bodies, based on the notion that electrons can exist simultaneously in several places; it is this joint ownership of electrons, which at the same time manage to belong to two atoms, holding at the place of the atoms in the molecules of our body. Without quantum theory our molecules and atoms split would be in the blink of an eye.

This quaint, but the basic property of the quantum theory (the fact that there exists a nonzero probability of even the most bizarre events) used Douglas Adam in his hilarious novel "the Hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy". The author needed a convenient way to run across the galaxy, so he thought "the engine of the infinite improbability", "a wonderful new way to overcome the vast interstellar distances for the smallest fraction of a second without boring walks in hyperspace". His machine allows to change the quantum probability of any event, so that even extremely unlikely events become usual and customary. In General, if you want to go to the nearest star system, simply change the likelihood of your rematerialization there,' and all! It's done! You instantly teleported to the right place.

Actually quantum "races", as usual, within the atom, cannot be easily transferred to large objects like people, consisting of trillions and trillions of atoms. Even if the electrons in our body jumping and jumping from place to place in their fantastic journey around the nucleus, so many of them that jumps are averaged and smoothed. That is why, generally speaking, on our level, the matter shall be submitted unchanged.

So, although at the atomic level teleportation is allowed to wait for such strange events at the macroscopic level, have to wait until the death of our Universe and even longer. But is it possible to use the laws of quantum theory and to create a mechanism for teleportation of objects on demand, as happens in science fiction works? Surprisingly, the answer is simple: Yes.
The EPR experiment

The key to quantum teleportation lies in the famous work 1935, albert Einstein and his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen. Ironically, three scientists aim was once and for all to put an end to the presence of probability in physics, suggesting this purpose thought experiment called the EPR experiment by the first letters of the names of the authors. (Distressed about undisputed experimental success of quantum theory, Einstein wrote: "The more success has quantum theory, the sillier it looks.")

If two electrons are initially hesitant in unison (this condition is called coherent), then they are able to keep the wave synchronization even at a great distance from each other. Even if these electrons will be separated by light years, invisible Shredingera wave will still be linked to each other like the umbilical cord. If one of electrons something happens, some information about this event will be immediately transferred to the second. This phenomenon is called quantum entanglement and is based on the concept that a coherent particles have some deep connection.

Take the (mentally, of course) two coherent electron; once they are coherent, then vibrate in unison, Then let these electrons to fly in opposite directions. Each electron is like swing the spinning top, and its rotation (spin) may be pointing up or down. Let the total spin of the system is zero, so if you know that the spin of a single electron is directed upwards, then the spin of the other just pointing down. According to quantum theory before measuring the spin of the electron is not directed neither up nor down; the electron is in an indeterminate state, as if he turns up and down at the same time. (You should be monitored, as the wave function collapses", leaving a particle in one particular state.)

Next, measure the spin of a single electron. For example, it spins up. So, we immediately learn that another electron spins down. Even if the electrons are separated in space many light years, we will instantly know the spin of the second of them, as the only measure of a spin first. Moreover, we will provide this information faster than the speed of light! Since our two electron "entangled", i.e. their wave functions oscillate in unison, these wave functions of bound invisible thread" or the umbilical cord. Everything that happens to one part, automatically reflected in the other. (In a sense, this means that everything that happens to us automatically and instantly affect developments in remote corners of the universe, because our wave function, probably, "confusing" since the beginning of time. In a sense, we can say that there is a web of confusion", which connects remote corners of the universe, including us.) Einstein ironically called this phenomenon ghostly standoff and "proved" with it that quantum theory is wrong, because nothing can travel from place to place faster than the speed of light.

Originally Einstein believed thought experiment EPR death knell on the quantum theory. But in the 1980s, Alain Aspect and colleagues conducted in France a real experiment with two detectors located at a distance of 13 m from each other. He measured the back of photons emitted by the atoms of calcium, and the results obtained are exactly coincided with the provisions of quantum theory. Obviously God plays dice with the Universe.

Whether or not the information in this case is transmitted faster than the speed of light? Did Einstein was wrong, and the speed of light is the ultimate speed of our Universe? Actually this is not quite so. Yes, information is actually transmitted faster than light, but this information is random, and therefore useless. The method described in the EPR experiment, it is impossible to convey this message, say, Morse code, whatever speed neither transferred information.

The knowledge that some of the electron on the other end of the universe revolves down useless. By this method it is impossible to convey the latest information about market prices. Let's consider an example. Suppose that one of our friends is always colored socks, red and green, not paying attention to what color will appear on any leg. For example, we examine one leg and find out that her red sock. It means that we learn faster than the speed of light, which is on the other foot green socks. Information really reach us faster than light, but it's absolutely useless. By this method it is impossible to transmit a signal which would contain a non-random information.

For many years the EPR experiment cited as a good example of the triumph of quantum theory, but the triumph was barren and did not give any practical benefits. Until recently.
Quantum teleportation

Everything changed in 1993 when scientists from IBM[10] under the leadership of Charles Bennett has shown the principal possibility to teleport using EPR experiment material objects, at least at the atomic level. (More precisely, they showed the possibility of transmission of full information about the particle.) Over the years, physicists have learnt to pass photons and even entire cesium atoms. Perhaps in a few decades, scientists will be able to teleport first DNA molecule and the first virus.

Kantovatelja uses one of the quaint features of the EPR experiment. In their experiments, physicists begin that take two atoms, a and C. Suppose that we want to beam information from the atom And the atom C. To do this, we introduce the third atom, tangled with atom (i.e. In and coherent). Then the atom And comes into contact with atom In and scans it in such a way that the information content of the atom And is transferred to the atom Century, during this process the atoms a and b confused. But as originally was confused with an atom, now the information contained in And transmitted in the atom S. the Result is that the atom And was teleported to the atom, i.e. now the information content And is identical to the information content of S.

Please note that the information contained prior to the experiment in the atom And was destroyed (i.e. after the experiment we don't get two identical copies). This means that if we imagine teleportation of a person, that person must die in transit. But the content of his body appears somewhere in other place. Note also that the atom And as such is not moved to the position of the atom S. on the Contrary, received from only the information that it contained, for example characteristics spin and polarization. (This does not mean that the atom And was dismantled and moved to another place. This means that the information content of the atom And was transferred to another atom - S.)

After the first announcement of the breakthrough between different groups of scientists began fierce competition. The first historic demonstration, which was carried out teleport photons ultraviolet light, took place in 1997 at the University of Innsbruck. A year later the experimenters from the California Institute of technology conducted a more precise experiment by teleport photons.

In 2004, the physics of the University of Vienna was able to teleport light particles on distance of 600 meters under the river Danube via fiber optic cable, thus setting a new record. (The cable itself had a length of 800 m and was stretched under the lower Danube municipal Sewerage systems. The transmitter was located on one side of the river, the receiver on the other.)

One of the objections that push critics of these experiments is that scientists work with light particles, photons. While the "no sale" on science fiction. It is therefore very important was another experiment 2004, when quantum teleportation was able to demonstrate not on the photons, and these atoms. This is a step in the right direction, to establish the real teleportation device. Physics of the National Institute of standards and technology in Washington were able to "confuse" three atoms of beryllium and to transfer the properties of one atom to another. The achievement was so significant that appeared on the cover of the journal Nature. Another group also achieved success, but with atoms of calcium.

In 2006, there was another significant event: for the first time in these experiments was involved macroscopic object. Physicists at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and the max Planck Institute in Germany has managed to confuse ray of light and gas, consisting of cesium atoms; in this event participated many trillions of atoms. After that, they coded the information contained in the laser flashes, and teleportuojasi its cesium atoms through a distance of about half a meter. As explained by one of the researchers Evgeny Polzik, was first held quantum teleportation "between light - media - and atoms".
Teleportation without obfuscation

Research in the field of teleportation is rapidly gathering pace. In 2007 there were made another major discovery. Physicists have proposed a method of teleportation, not requiring obfuscation. Recall that entanglement is the most difficult moment of quantum teleportation. The solution to this problem could open before teleportation new horizons.

"We are talking about the ray of about 5000 particles, which disappears in one place and appear in another," says physicist Aston Bradley Center atomic quantum optics in Brisbane at the Australian research Council - one of the participants in the development of a new method of teleportation.

"We believe that the spirit of our scheme closer to the original fantastic concept," he says. The essence of the group's approach Bradley that scientists take beam of rubidium atoms, transferred all of its information in a beam of light, send this beam through a fiber optic cable, and then recreate the initial beam of atoms in a different place. If the claimed results are confirmed, it will be removed the main obstacle to real teleportation and open up completely new ways of transmission to a distance of more large objects.

To the new method is not confused with the quantum teleportation, Dr. Bradley called it a classic teleportation. (The name is somewhat misleading, because its method also relies on quantum theory, but not obfuscated.)

The key to this new type of teleportation is open recently a new state of matter, known as the "condensate Bose-Einstein", or CBA, which is one of the coldest substances in the Universe.

In nature the lowest temperature can be found in the open space; it is 3 To, i.e. three degrees above absolute zero. (This is due to the residual heat of the Big Bang, which is still fills the Universe.) But CBA there at the temperature of from one million to one billionth of a degree above absolute zero; this temperature can be obtained only in the laboratory.

When cooled some forms of matter to almost absolute zero atoms (without exception) fall to the lowest energy level and start to vibrate in unison, i.e. become coherent. Wave functions of atoms overlap, so in a sense, CBA resembles a giant "Vergata", with all its individual atoms vibrate in unison. The existence of this unusual state of matter predicted by Einstein and Satyendranath Bose in 1925, but it took 70 years before, in 1995, CBE was finally obtained in laboratories at mit and the University of Colorado.

Here's how the teleportation device Bradley and his team. Everything starts with a set superhologram of rubidium atoms in a state of CBA. Then on CBA exposed to a beam of atoms of rubidium). The beam atoms are also keen to move into a state with the lowest energy, so they dump excess energy in the form of light quanta. Thus obtained using light to send via fiber optic cable. It is noteworthy that this beam contains all of quantum information necessary to describe the original beam substances (i.e. information about the location and speed of all of its atoms). After the cable, the light beam enters is another CBA, which turns it into the initial flow of matter.

This new method of teleportation scientists believe is extremely promising, as it is not involved entanglement of atoms. But this method has its problems. He strongly determined by the properties of the condensate Bose-Einstein, which is extremely difficult to obtain in the laboratory. Moreover, CBA has a rather unusual propertiesmi and in some respects it behaves like one giant atom. Unusual quantum effects that can be observed only at the atomic level, in CBA in principle, can be seen with the naked eye. Once it was considered impossible.

Imminently practical application of CBA - nuclear power lasers. Of course, the basis of laser serves as a coherent beam of photons, which fluctuate in unison. But CBA is a collection of atoms, which also vary in unison; hence the ability to create a coherent flow of CBA atoms. In other words, CBA can become the basis for devices, similar to conventional lasers: is atomic, or real, lasers, which are made of CBA atoms. Currently lasers are widely used in everyday life, and atomic lasers, may come into our life not less deeply. But as CBA can only exist at temperatures barely exceeding the absolute zero, progress in this area will probably be slow, though, and confident.

Can we say with all that has already been achieved, when we receive the ability to teleport? In the coming years, physicists hope to teleport complex molecules. After that several decades will probably be spent on the development of the method of DNA teleportation or maybe some virus. Against teleportation person - just like in the science fiction films - there is no principal objections, but technical problems to be overcome on the way to such achievement staggering. Yet in order to achieve coherence tiny light photons and separate atoms, require the best efforts of the physical laboratories of the world. About quantum coherence with real macroscopic objects such as people, not yet discussed it for a long time are not going to. Most likely, it will take centuries before we will be able to teleport ordinary items, if at all possible.
Quantum computers

Essentially, the fate of quantum teleportation is closely connected with the fate of the projects by the development of quantum computers. Both directions are the same laws of quantum physics and the same technology, so that between them there is a constant and very active exchange of ideas. Quantum computers might ever completely replace on our tables conventional digital computers. Moreover, one can prove that these computers will affect the future of the world economy, so these technologies are enormous commercial interest. New technologies, created on the basis of quantum technologies, will replace the modern technologies, and Silicon valley, quite possibly, will go away after the capitals of the American auto industry.

Conventional computers think in binary notation, and operate only zeros and units, which are called bits. But quantum computers are much more powerful. They can operate qubits, or quantum bits that can accept and intermediate between 0 and 1 values. Imagine an atom placed in a magnetic field. He is spinning like a top, and the axis of rotation can specify up or down. Common sense tells us that the spin of the atom may be pointing up or down, but not in both directions simultaneously. But in the strange world of quantum atom is described as the sum of both of these States, as a superposition of an atom with a positive spin and atom with a negative spin. In inhuman world quanta each item is described as the sum of all possible States. (If you want to give the quantum description of a large object, such as a cat, this means that you will have to add the wave function of living cats wave function dead cats, so the result will be a cat, simultaneously dead and alive, which I will talk in more detail in Chapter 13.)

Now imagine a chain of atoms, is built in a magnetic field, so the back of all atoms have the same direction. If to cover this chain of atoms by laser beam, the beam reflected from atoms, turning when the axes of rotation of some of them. By measuring the difference between the original and the reflected laser beams, we will get the result of complex quantum computation, which is a coup axis of rotation of many atoms.

Quantum computers are not yet out of infancy. The maximum that has yet to calculate the quantum computer is 3 x 5 = 15. One can hardly consider it a serious claim for the eviction of today's supercomputers. In quantum teleportation and quantum computers the same fatal flaw: the need to maintain the coherence of a large number of atoms. The solution to this problem would lead to an enormous leap forward in both areas.

The CIA and other secret organizations have to quantum computers active interest. The basis for most of the secret codes of the world is the "key", which is a very large integer, which must be decomposed into simple factors. And if the key is a product of two stopacne numbers, digital computer may need more than a hundred years to find these two factor without any additional data. At the moment such codes can be considered practically not susceptible to tampering.

But in 1994, Peter Shor from bell Labs have shown that for quantum computer factorization it would be child's play. It is clear that this discovery instantly aroused the interest of the intelligence community. In principle, a quantum computer would be able to break all the codes in the world and completely destroy the security system of modern computers. The first country, which will be able to create such a system, can expect to penetrate into the deepest secrets of other countries and organizations.

Some scientists suggest that in the future the global economy may be completely dependent on quantum computers. It is expected that digital computers on the base of silicon technology made physical limit in the sense of growth of computing power-sometime after 2020 And to keep the technology has continued to evolve need, rather, to create new, more powerful collection of computer technology. Other scientists hope to play using quantum computers power of the human brain.

So the stakes are extremely high. If you can solve the problem of coherence, that we may obey not only teleportation. It is not excluded that quantum computers will give us the opportunity to develop various technologies in the still unknown and hardly predictable ways. A breakthrough in this area is so important that in the following chapters I will return to discussion of this topic.

As I have already pointed out, coherence extremely difficult to maintain in the laboratory. Even the weak random vibration can disturb the coherence of two atoms and negate all the efforts. Today we hardly manage to maintain coherence at least a handful of atoms. Atoms originally "in-phase", begin to lose synchronization within a few nanoseconds; at best they are held in this state until a second. Teleportation necessary to carry out very quickly, before the atoms will start to lose synchronicity, and this is another limiting factor for quantum computing and teleportation.

Despite all obstacles, David Deutsch of the University of Oxford sure that these problems can be solved: "If you're lucky, with recent theoretical advances in the creation of [a quantum computer] may need to be much less than 50 years... It would be a whole new way of reining in nature".

To build a real quantum computer, we will need from hundreds to millions of atoms vibrating in unison; today we are still far from such advances. Now teleportation captain Kirk would be astronomically difficult. We'd have to install quantum entanglement with a copy twin captain Kirk. Even with nanotechnology and the latest computer's hard to imagine how this can be done in practice.

So, at the atomic level teleportation already exists, and it is possible that already in the next few decades we will learn how to teleport complex and even organic molecules. But teleportation macroscopic objects then have to wait much longer, from a few decades to a few centuries, and even more, if this procedure is possible at all.

So teleportation of complex molecules, maybe even viruses or living cells, should be allocated to the class I impossibility, which means: this task can be expected in this century. But teleportation man, although not contrary to the laws of physics, is unlikely to be implemented in the near future. On the solution of this problem provided that the solution exists at all - you may need more than one hundred years. So I would say the teleportation of this kind to the II class of impossibility.
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