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Viewings: 3104It appears, on the border of the Solar system and deep space there is a kind customs. There the magnetic field lines generated by the Sun and is present in the solar wind, undergo a reconnection with lines of force of the magnetic fields of the interstellar medium. This became known as information received from the probe Voyager 1".
The idea of"Big tour" first appeared in the late 60-ies - before launching "Apollo" to the moon and spacecraft "pioneer" to Jupiter. The development of this project, NASA began in the distant 1969, but before the start of the Voyagers, space runners on long distance, remained eight long years. The first was launched to Jupiter Voyager-2 from the Baikonur space center. Kennedy August 20, 1977, his booster "Titan 3E-Centaurus" took off weight of 700 tons!
The second start was made Voyager-1 September 5, 1977, cosmic twin Voyager-2. Both spacecraft were sent to Jupiter, the Voyager-1 - on shorter and expensive route. In accordance with the calculations, the Voyager-1 reached on March 5, 1979, the planet Jupiter, ahead SPACECRAFT Voyager-2. Second Voyager flew to the planet's giant July 9, 1979. Both devices were created at the jet propulsion laboratory of NASA.
Great idea studies of giant planets was born in a very good moment of time: in the late seventies - early eighties of the twentieth century, all of them conveniently located in a relatively narrow sector of the Solar system and lined in "parade of planets". This was the case previously, and exactly 180 years before the start of the Voyagers!
The goal of long-term mission was following, circled each of Voyagers of several planets. Using gravitational maneuvers made possible the flight SPACECRAFT from one planet to another in a relatively short time. Without such a maneuver a mission to Neptune, would continue for 20 years longer, and would require unthinkable fuel consumption.
The real coincidence of circumstances and brilliant ideas were realized successfully: the pair is currently probes Voyagers are their paths through the Solar system for 35 years. They move faster, gradually accelerating, these devices have become the most distant and fast-moving man-made space objects. Right now they are ready for the spacewalk, for the true limits of the Solar system. After the heliopause, the boundary of the Solar system, "travelers" will continue the flight in interstellar space. Voyager 1 is close to this limit - soon it will be released outside the heliosphere, where the influence of the solar wind, and will continue to move in the interstellar medium.
3 December 2012 work with data Voyager 1 scientists presented the results of the ongoing work of the probes, which for the first time allows us - albeit virtual - cross so farthest edge of the Solar system. For the first time humanity is given the opportunity to review everything that happens in this mysterious region. Voyager 1 has long passed the boundary of the shock wave, which is formed around the stellar wind of the Solar system, resulting in the heliosphere - the region in which the main one is the sun, filling the heliospheric cavity flow of the solar wind.
The border of interstellar space and the heliosphere is called the heliopause - in this field particles of the solar wind slow down, their movement is becoming more chaotic. This is the result of the collision thread star and solar winds. In June 2010, when the Voyager 1 withdrew to 17 billion kilometers from the Sun, the velocity of the solar wind has fallen almost to zero.
28 July 2012 Voyager 1 has entered into a new region of space, far beyond the orbits of Neptune and Pluto. Analyzing the data, scientists have identified many unexpected features. It turned out that in this field the magnetic field lines generated by the Sun and is present in the solar wind, is undergoing a reconnection with lines of force of the magnetic fields of the interstellar medium. This reconnection at the border of the Solar system allows the particles of the solar wind to escape into interstellar space, and the stellar wind to go in and out of the Solar system. Customs in the field reconnection gives them good for passing the border in the area of the heliopause!
Similar expressways, magnetic highway (magnetic highway), actually is not a permanent structure, and very changeable, as evidenced by the data Voyager 1. Only since August 25, moves further Voyager 1, the work of "highway" fully stabilized. On power lines region reconnection flying particles of interstellar space.
This phenomenon can be interpreted as a hierarchy of nested systems, when the magnetosphere is washed by the solar wind, and there is a formation of a shock wave and transition layer at the boundary of the magnetosphere, even more powerful are the magnetosphere of giant planets, which are characterized by the same processes. The heliosphere is much larger in scale, but wrap the stellar wind its obstacles demonstrates reconnection in the same quality, that is, when the particles are taking the game imposed by electromagnetic fields from different sources in outer environment.
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