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Храмы бога ХроносаThere is nothing that manages the life, all of our lives, as the time. People in prehistoric times already knew how to count the days, months and years with great accuracy. At first, they looked at the sky with the naked eye, watching the Sun, Moon and stars.

Later laid astronomical principles at the heart of its stone circles, the pyramids or temples. Until recently, archaeologists did not believe that the ancients were able to do it, considering these structures is more abstract. Mysteries of ancient monuments in Europe, Asia and America, not only served the religious and ceremonial purposes, but also played a role calendars, reveals a new science, armed with the most modern computers, astroarchaeology.

In the forms of ancient sacral buildings of Buddhism is hidden cosmological symbolism.
The constructions erected by the ancient Indians were sanctuaries harmony of the Cosmos. The Mayans and Aztecs created a very precise calendar serving including astronomical purposes.

Many of the most significant monuments of early and ancient history all over the world have been calendar structures, the aim of which was to consolidate the time in the space forms. These quaint buildings of the peoples of Central and South America was built on the solid Foundation of astronomical knowledge.

Time is one of the greatest mysteries in the world and the key to many mysteries. Many modern physics, and along with them and mystics believe that time as such does not exist. What we call time, there is only apparent sequence of movements in space. Therefore, the time actually impossible to measure.

What we are witnessing in the so-called measurement of time - not that other, as change in space. And the hour hand is also showing us only its own movement. As far as concerning the notion of time and how closely it is connected with the properties of space, was brilliantly proved mathematically by albert Einstein in 1905, Above all, he refused to conventional notions of space, replacing it with the concept of the curvature of space. The idea of spaces with a non-linear coordinates leads, of course, to the complete destruction of the concept of time. Because of that, and watch different according to the laws of relativity theory will go at different speeds, if they are in motion. This scientific discovery entails a number of problems related to Space, and then the question about the origin of all things, that is about Creation.

However, the revolutionary idea of Einstein seemed only to scientists-naturalists, who from the time of the Renaissance and, in any case, Education used to live in a fool-reliable world where everything has a purely mechanical explanation. Mystics as the theory of relativity have not discovered anything new. Whatever cultural community they belong to, for them the space-time continuum has always been a manifestation of the divine principle. Key to this understanding served them starry sky and annual cycles of nature. Linking one to another, mystics were closer to the penetration into the main mystery of Creation, beyond mechanically-astronomy picture of the world.

The main mystery of Creation

Not accidentally, in all ancient, and partly in some modern cultures calendar was given pronounced religious significance. And again not a coincidence that many religious and cult constructions, for its part, served calendar objectives or were specially built for this purpose. Modern Christian churches too are being built so that the altar was facing East. And East is not just a part of the world. There the Sun rises. No wonder we are talking about the countries, "lying to the sunrise", or about the Country of the rising Sun in the far East. Time and space unite even language: even our grandparents called South noon.

Complement calendar clock. The first counts the periods of the annual cycle, watch determine the time of day. Naturally, they are closely related. It was known to the ancient Romans. The length of one hour was changing them every day. Summer daylight hours were shorter night, in winter, on the contrary: the Romans divided between sunrise and sunset into 12 equal intervals. Although such account and seems unnecessarily complicated, however, people used it for thousands of years.

A few decades ago, archaeologists did not believe that the people of ancient times knew how to make such calculations. How could these "savages" to have such knowledge in astronomy, which are not present and the people of the XX century? Only when studying the ancient and ancient history took astronomers, the ability of our ancestors to measure time and count calendar was confirmed. Thus emerged a new scientific discipline - astroarchaeology. The pioneers were scientists Scot Alexander or its Sardinian colleague Carlo Masha. Now it has been proved (though not all archaeologists old school to admit it)that the most significant monuments of ancient and ancient times all over the world is somehow related to calendars, i.e. they seem to fix the time in the space forms. The evidence is taken, there was not a majority opinion. In our days to do this, usually made of computer calculations based on the principles of theory of probability, which determine whether this building, be it a stone circle, abstract at first glance, the sculpture in the rocks, pyramid or temple, erected according to the laws of astronomy or not.

The astronomical device or monument?

Buildings really are very different. Some of the ancient structures were obviously built like a giant instruments for astronomical measurements of time. Most often it is a sundial, marking the start date of the most important periods of the year, and in some cases, and the day time. Others were not adapted for direct measurement. They were a kind of monuments of accumulated knowledge about the harmonious rhythms of the Cosmos and of the Creation in General. Sometimes they are arranged so that the sunset or sunrise or any appreciable stars on a certain day had against the required mark. Such facilities have not been used for research, but, on the contrary, we think that the builders have accurate astronomical knowledge. However, they do not leave today no doubt in his destiny. It's more complicated with the third category of such facilities, the dimensions and location of which on the ground not connected with the calendar periods, and with the cosmic symbolism of numbers, accepted in this culture.

These are multi-tower of the Sumerians and Babylonians, called ziggurats. Their triangular shape symbolized the division of the world into three "floor" - Heaven, Earth and the underworld, and a 7-speed corresponded to 7 areas. Similar symbolism found in buildings in China, for example, in the Halls Mingtang, built, according to legend, king Wen Zhou dynasty (1122-255, BC). Square building (square served as a symbol of the Earth was covered with round thatched roof (circle symbolized Heaven). The building consisted of 5 or 9 square "halls", which had 12 doors by the number of months of the year. As the Sun one by one passes the 12 signs of the Zodiac, and the king of the month were included in the new hall and announced through his door his decrees people. In early Buddhism and Hinduism were also known such structures with space symbols - for example, Buddhist Stupa, personified firmament.

The famous ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu is located on a remote mountain plateau in the Peruvian Andes. Strange oblique plane his temples allows precise observation of the stars.

Pyramid of the Sun was built in ancient Peru, long before the Incas.
Ancient astronomers-Inca were mostly simple sundial, such as the sanctuary of the Sun in Intiwatana or step "Throne" of the Incas in Cusco (Peru).

On the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, there are almost 7 thousand round stone towers, built of large stone blocks in prehistoric times. They are called Nuraghe. Legends say that before there were more than 12 thousand. When it was, we can only guess. Attempts to give their Dating spread - from "after the ice age" to "iron age". About why it was built Nuraghi, there are also some speculation. They believed and tombstones coach of the Egyptians, and dwellings of the ancient giants, and the tombs of the nobles, temples, dedicated to mystical cult of fire, the monuments in honor of military victories, fortifications, towers and even houses.

Most of these conjectures not stand up to criticism. For everyday use in whatever capacity, as these gloomy deprived of the Windows of the building is absolutely useless. No holes through which I could display the smoke of the fire. In addition, most of the year within the Nuraghe reigns such high humidity that any of its inhabitants very soon threatened with rheumatism and arthritis. No traces of burial they is not found. For such a small island, as Sardinia 12 000 fortifications is too much. Instead combine the defenders of the island, they divided them into small, unfit for combat units, which at the same time would be too much to small, mostly peasant population could afford to feed such a militia for a long time. Yes and from whom it was necessary to defend the island, more than 1000 years that did not see any invaders? Nuraghe, disposal is also not credible. Ancient Sardis had their disposal - the dolmens.

Fear of eclipses

Only in 1984 Professor Carlo Masia from the University of Cagliari inwas given to reveal the secret of the Nuraghe using methods of astroarchaeology. Most of the towers were oriented towards the entrance to the South. The location of the inner passages and rooms leads to the conclusion that they were used for observations of the Sun at certain times of the year and day. Some of the Nuraghe built otherwise. Some input is directed exactly in the direction where the Sun rises in the winter solstice, the other - on the point of sunrise varying from bright stars. Passion for the construction of the Nuraghe the islanders apparently, was connected with the solar and lunar eclipses observed in Sardinia between 1200 and 200, BC whenever one of the leading lights were extinguished, ancient Sardis were building their own solar or lunar deity new temple-Nuraghe.

About high knowledge of the ancient Sardis in astronomy say and other prehistoric sites on the island, namely the temples-wells. This is a kind of underground structures, which archaeologists have found already 70. About 30 of them are in good condition. Built them all equally, and there is always next to the Nuraghe. Stone staircase descends to 6 m below the ground and ends in front of a round stone well covered high, like a Gothic roof. The top of the roof comes to the surface of the earth, and there is a hole. Stones in some of these churches, wells, built 1500 years ago, look as if they just yesterday handled most modern stone-cutting saw.

Unlike solar and stellar temples-Nuraghe of these amazing wells, according to Professor of Malia, served lunar sanctuaries. The first of wells, carefully examined them with astronomer Proverbio, was a sacred source of St. Cristina. It turned out that a well laid so that once a year the light of the moon gets exactly the hole in the roof and in a few minutes after midnight reflected in the water of the well. And this the only time corresponds to the position of the moon, which could cause Eclipse! Of course, it could be a coincidence, although from the category is very rare. However, further research is both professors showed that preserved the well of St. Vittoria di Serry is arranged in the same way.

Peru's history long before Columbus had a number of highly developed cultures. For example, the Incas were able to build monumental structures, astronomical which is indisputable.

Astronomical facilities in Central America

Calendar of construction of Sardinia belong to the category of astronomical buildings, which only strengthened the accumulated knowledge about Space in iconic form, but was not used for new measurements and observations. The same role was played numerous buildings of pre-Columbian era in Central and South America. One of the most complex is a complex of El Caracol in Chichen Itza in Mexico. Caracol in Spanish-"snail", it is a round tower, that rests on two superimposed on each other rectangular platforms and got its name from the spiral stairs inside of her. Raised up her Toltec somewhere between 975 and 1200's. the Name of the complex, Chichen Itza, dates back to the Mexican tribe Itza, in the XIII century settled on these, then abandoned lands. Toltec, too, were not the first: around the end of the X century they were replaced by first lived there Maya.

Bottom platform Karakola 6 m height and size 61.5 x 66,9 m has a rectangular shape, and the top 3 m above and is an oblique angle with the parties 21, 21, 22,15 and 24 m, also off-axis to 5 degrees to the lower platform. However diagonal line drawn from the northeast to the southwest corner of both platforms, are almost next, strictly parallel to one another, almost through the center of a round tower. With a deviation of only 37 arc they point to the point where in 1000 the Sun was rising in the summer solstice, and in the opposite direction it was going in the winter solstice. The stairs lower platform observer, again in the year 1000, saw the point where the Sun at the summer solstice day came.

From the stairs of the top platform he deviation of only 31' could watch the sunset in those two days of the year, when it stood at Zenith over Chichen Itsey. And that is not all. On the lower platform is the platform, podium height 33 cm, on which niche designed for an observer with two columns, standing very close to each other. If you touch the wall niche and look right at the space between the columns, you can see an area of the sky where comes Venus when it reaches the extreme points of its Northern declination. This is verified by other facts: one of the columns are painted black, the other in red. Even the Mayans meant the East is red, North - white-West - black, and South - yellow. Venus is called the Morning and Evening star, so red and black colors. And, finally, all the structure was dedicated to the God Kukulkan, which the Maya in their mythology were identified with

Morning star.

In the wilds of virgin forests Peten (Northern Guatemala) is an ancient complex of Tikal with the pyramids, temples and palaces once served as shrines to the Mayan Indians. Between 300 and 900, this tribe has created brilliant monuments in the South-East of Mexico and in the Eastern districts of Honduras. In addition, it had a profound knowledge in mathematics and surprisingly accurate calendar. Astronomical knowledge Maya today, no one disputes. Their calculations of the motion for Venus 481, give an error of only 0.08 day.

In the heart of the ancient Indian city of Chichen Itza in Yucatan in Mexico is famous temple-pyramid called Castillo. Each of the four sides of the pyramid equipped with a ladder, with 91 Shuping and another, with the total number of steps gives 365 - number of days in a year.
Direction to the Morning star

Finally the round tower was built for observation. Upstairs there is a small rotunda 4 doors, leading into the outer gallery, too, 4 doors, but otherwise arranged. Leaving them on the balcony and looked over one of the last door on the inside, in one of the neighboring see a narrow stretch of sky. 8 defined thus directions astronomically significant was 5. This is the direction on the bright stars Canopus, castor and Pollux, at the point of call of Fomalhaut (if the southernmost and northernmost declination), and also on the point of sunset of the day of passing the Zenith. For other observations, possibly served 8 holes in the top of the tower (it was kept of these, only 3). Attempts reconstruction give some directions, for example, on a number of key provisions of the Sun and Venus, as well as the stars of Achernar.

The largest of the calendar structure was and solar Observatory Uaxactun in Guatemala. In the period between 300 B.C. and 150 ad, Maya began construction of a complex of religious buildings, among which are 4 step pyramid. Three pyramids are, or rather were standing in a row on one the terrace height of 4.57 m, and the fourth was located in some distance from them, approximately against the middle of the terrace. From below it is a stone staircase length of 9.9 m Between the fourth pyramid and terrace, closer to the last stand 3 stone columns.

On the stairs there are 3 dots at the bottom, at the top and in the middle, where the tops of the columns are at eye level, from which you can observe several astronomical objects, if you look on top of the columns or three other pyramids. Amazing that the three pyramids on the terrace cover the full range of solar sunrise during the year, if seen from the top of the stairs fourth of the pyramid. Because of the extreme pyramids of the Sun rises on June 21 and December 21, that is, in the days of the solstices. From the middle of the pyramid, it rises 21 March and 23 September, in the spring and autumn equinox. One of the other areas of observation celebrates the day on 6 April, the former for the Maya day of the beginning of the dry season and thus of field work. It was one of the most important holidays of the year.

Was this the temple of the warriors with a colonnade at the entrance dedicated to the God of the Morning star? In Chichen Itza, the city of the Mayan architectural influence Toltec seen particularly clearly.

Once established in Belize, the Maya built in Xunantunich Grand colonnade of the stars.

The round tower, built in Chichen Itza in the era of the Toltec, served as an astronomical Observatory. Because of its internal stairs it was called El Caracol (the snail).

The pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan height 64 m was the highest building of ancient Mexico.

Monumental Observatory

Other astronomical sanctuaries pre-Columbian era in Central America should be called even a complex of cult buildings of Copan in Honduras and Monte Alban, the sacred mountain Zapotec in the region of Oaxaca in Mexico. To describe them, we will not, we'll just note that their astronomical purpose is not in doubt.

Calendar structures found in the Andes mountains, in distant areas of steep mountains. Most of the buildings were built by the Incas. The complex Pisac in Peru, built around 1450, the famous Machu Picchu was built in the Andes (Cusco) later, the so-called "Throne" of the Incas in Scune, again near Cuzco, or "moonstone" in Killarmy about ibid. Ancient buildings of the Incas all for the most part were sundial. Stone carved columns, edges and corners which were strictly regulated and carefully polished. Shadows from them accurately indicate the specific calendar date. They were called "intihuatana", which means "the place where it was caught by the Sun". The root of UAT in this difficult word means not only "catch", but the concept of "solar year".

One of the most attractive complexes is the solar temple Kalasasaya in Tiahuanaco, Bolivia. He built his Indian tribe ayamara who lived there between 540 and 900, ad, before the Maya. The Church has a rectangular shape and is focused strictly on the parties of light. In the Western wall there is a niche for observations, of which through the Church we can see the points of sunrise on the day of the winter and summer solstice. In some distance from the middle of the Eastern wall to it was attached to a stone staircase. An observer standing in the niche, could see over her sunrise 24 March and 21 September (spring and autumn equinox), which explains the ladder is not in the middle of the wall.

Instruments for astronomical measurements in Asia

The equinoxes is the borders, dividing the gaps between the solstices for about 4 equal parts. Errors in the calculation of these dates and periods due to the fact that the Sun is not exactly in the center of the earth's orbit. However, the builders of the temple Kalasasaya was able to consider the eccentricity of the orbit of the Earth!

Mounting the stairs, looking from her to the Western wall, the length of which accounted for 48.9 m, you can choose one of the ten areas identified particularly high rocks, connected to each other. Ancient astronomers noted thus the point of sunset, which was used for the separation of the calendar year in equal parts. Exactly the same calendar properties had, apparently, and signs on the earth", drawn in the area of Nazca in southern Peru.

If the calendar structures in Central and South America, served mainly for the labelling of certain moments of the year, calculated before the construction, in ancient Asia they were built as tools for regular astronomical observations and measurements. One of the first buildings of this kind is considered a square brick tower, the width of which is below 15 m and upper - 7,5 m; around the middle of its height it has a narrow window height 12 m, which establishes gnomon - vertical "arrow" a sundial. Is this tower is approximately 70 km from the Chinese city of Luoyang in Henan province. It was built in 1276, under the Emperor Zhou Mode in the ancient city Anjana. A sample of her, however, was obviously similar to the Arab tower, built around 1000

So she could serve accurate astronomical measurements, from the middle of the Foundation of one of its walls built of stone "path" in length, 36 m in which pierced grooves for water, providing the supervision strictly horizontal position of stones "path". On the stones bear labels. Thanks to them you with high accuracy to measure the length of the solar shade at noon at any time of the year, so that this structure was, in essence, nothing more than a huge stone calendar. Even more great tool of this kind was established in 1437, in Samarkand, belonging now to the Republic of Uzbekistan. It was built under Mirza Muhammad Taragay, a grandson of the great conqueror Tamerlane (Timur), better known as Ulugbek, although this name means nothing more than "the great Prince".

From the famous Observatory of Ulugbek in our days there were only the ruins of a round stone walls, partially sunken into the ground. Judging by the preserved markup on the stones, this wall-quadrant allowed to calculate the amount of direct ascent of heaven phone to build quadrant as it should, the people of the Prince had to punch in the nearby cliffs shaft width 2.5 m Along survived information, quadrant was supplemented by the tower Observatory, the height of which was equal to 60 m, as the mosque, the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Using this tool, Ulugbek managed to conduct astronomical measurements with unprecedented accuracy. It amounted to the directory where you specify the coordinates of more than 1000 stars. The fate of Ulugbek sad: his son Abd al-Latif sent to him killers during their pilgrimage to Mecca in October, 1449

Sidereal calendar age 3.5 thousand years

However, the case was not killed, it continued for nearly 300 years later, the Indian Maharaja Jaisingh II in 1728 established a new capital of his princedom amber - the city of Jaipur. This city is situated at 250 km to the southwest from the present metropolis of Delhi. Jaisingh II did not meet the accuracy of small astrolabes, then taken to the East, and he decided to have a more accurate. Not knowing about the existence of a telescope, he ordered to build in Delhi (about 1724), Jaipur (1734), the Matura (after 1734), Benares (1737) and Ugine (1734) five great observatories.

The complex of buildings in the Matura in the 40-ies of our century, was demolished on the stones for new buildings, the other survived more or less intact, especially in Jaipur and Delhi. A good overview of astronomical facilities gives a report Jesuit father Joseph Tiefenthaler Dating from 1785: "above all, that wonderful place that is designed for astronomical observations; structure, like everyone in this country has never before seen, admired as its novelty, and the number placed in it tools. The place is large and spacious, and it is situated on the plain near the Prince's Palace, surrounded by a stone wall, used it for observing the sky. At the entrance you can see the 12 signs of the Zodiac, tiled in large circles from limestone".

Stupa, a Buddhist sacred structure, based on a cosmic symbolism. The monument of the ancient culture, captured in stone the laws of motion of the stars and originally served for storage of the sacred relics. The building is a dome, was built over Territoorium Foundation.

Facilities like a Mortar, often have four doors - one for each direction.

Observatory in Jaipur (India), built in 1734 according to the plans of the Maharaja of Jaisingh P. Among the stone instruments for astronomical observations are highlighted sundial height over 30 m

On the island of Sardinia found about 7000 prehistoric buildings in the form of cyclopean round tower-Nuraghe. Why would he need? Today, no one knows whether they were fortifications, houses, towers and burial grounds or sanctuaries solar and lunar deities.

Then the drawings astronomical areas and corresponding polar declination for one place, a diameter of 12 and over Paris feet; then sundial, large and small, for equinoxes, and the astrolabe, also from limestone; and, finally, the Meridian line and a horizontal sundial carved in exceedingly great flat stone. Most remarkable of all the world axis of extraordinary height and thickness, made of bricks and limestone, and inclined at an angle equal to the breadth thereof designated, of a height of not less than 70 feet Paris. On top of axis arranged an observation platform, from where you can see the surrounding area far from the city, when you look down you may feel dizzy.

Travel of Jesuits in the XVIII century

The shadow thereof velikolepnoi axis falls on cyclopean same quadrant (semicircle), horn and the ends of the arcs which turned forward, yet he himself is divided into degrees and minutes, and exceedingly fine work on the white limestone or plaster. In the morning the shadow falls on the quadrant in the West, in the afternoon on the opposite quadrant in the East, so that add-on axis marks itself the middle between them, and the height of the Sun can be calculated at any moment. Near Siem quadrant delivered double gnomon, also from plaster; it is enclosed in a kind of a stand on either side of her. When it was noon, sun beam passes through the two holes made in the copper sheet, and specifies the height of the Sun on and on the other quadrant, in the summer below their means, in winter as above.

No less remarkable three brass astrolabe, suspended in the movable iron ring; the other ring, brass, has a division and suspended in accordance with the polar decline thereof designated to mark the movement of the Sun, for the calculation of which is enough to send this tool on it. About the tools smaller I will not speak. From the same shortcomings thereof, the Observatory should be called not only its valley position and its surrounding walls, from which you cannot see sunrises and approaches the heavenly bodies, but also that the gnomon, the world axis, and other tools made of plaster, why you cannot achieve sufficient accuracy of observations".

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