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Оборотни в легендах и в реальной жизниThe werewolf is one of the Central figures of the ancient superstitions. Together with vampires, witches, mermaids, ghosts and witches he existed for thousands of years, citing fear for adults and children in large cities and remote villages.

The word "lekantrop", from which it got its name, literally meaning "the wolf man" and comes from the Greek Likantropia. Some dictionaries define the word as "the transformation of witches in the wolf".

The theme of the wolf-man was popular in oral tradition, and in the Chronicles of almost all over the world. In France this monster was known as the Loup-Garou, in other parts of Europe as a werewolf, or carry out, vulkodlak, or volkolak - in Transylvania, palenik in Bulgaria.

Starting with Romulus and Remus stories about the wolf, the man-beast and the werewolf excited the imagination of people like Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Karl Linney and Jonathan swift. Talented writers has created a series of wonderful works about werewolves.

However, the werewolf is not as well known as his fellow vampire villain. Werewolf mnogoznachnoi and more mysterious than a vampire. All attributed to him mythical qualities can be fairly easily debunked by modern science, but even in ancient times there was a kind of a disease that struck entire villages, turning people into a frenzied beasts, and these patients had all the classic symptoms of lycanthropy. It is known that in Europe in the XVI century, after the bloody orgies, these unfortunate suspected of demonism, was persecuted and etched dogs were killed by the hundreds.

Interest abiotically truly inexhaustible. In XX century it was expressed in the production of such films as "the wolf Man" (1941), "Frankenstein meets the wolf-Man" (1943), "the Woman-a wolf in London" (1946), "Werewolf" (1956), "I was a werewolf-teenager" (1957), "the Werewolf in maiden's bedroom" (1961) is only a small part of the list of more than fifty films, specified in the "Directory-catalogue of fantastic films of Walt Lee. Probably the most famous part of the screen is LON Chaney Jr, whose cinematic transformation from man to wolf it took at least six hours prior training in the dressing room, and an even greater time itself transformation. Images werewolves, represented by the films are very diverse, from a truly artistic, sometimes even causing sympathy, to deliberately frightening and funny-blood-thirsty.

Modern fiction and journalism shows an even more profound approach to the topic werewolves, even greater consideration.

17 December 1976, for example, the London "daily mail published an article entitled "We caught the werewolf-killer," said the police", which reported about the details of the capture committed numerous killings of criminal, known as the "Paris werewolf". At the end of the Second world war, the Nazis created a terrorist organization, whose members were committing terrible crimes under the code name "Werewolf" (Werewolf). In the application of criminal offenders the word "werewolf" serves as a strong moral metaphor, when it comes to some horrible, wild, not beyond the logic of crimes such as multiple murder, rape, cannibalism, torture, sadomasochism, Satanism. The irony of this assessment is that the wolf (unless he is hungry or not wounded) does not kill and does not attack. According to a recent survey, in the wolf pack maintained a close relationship of trust, a community based on mutual responsibility, and if some of its members began to show killer instincts, destroy it for the good of the whole tribe.

The "true" werewolves in our modern society are the ones who appears as patients in the psychiatric clinics and ritual ceremonies of American Indians. About people (of both sexes), imagined and feel like werewolves, doctors say as licantropa. Although an etymological difference between the words "werewolf" and "lekantrop" slightly (werewolf-vir, lat.: the wolf man; lekantrop-lykanthropos, gr.: valaclovir), in their application they differ: the word "lekantrop" today is the professional term for pathological conditions, and "werewolf" is not a medical word used in literature, in films and for the characteristics of the offenders.

We have a long way - through the ages, in different countries. But first we allow ourselves to lead a story that will cause the reader trembling and bewildered; will help to understand how all this mysticism could survive and be saved today.

In the end of XVI century in Auvergne lived a wealthy gentleman by the name of Santos. He lived in a big way, kept servants, was happily married.

The estate of SANASA was located on the mountain. Of the many Windows of the landowner and his home was admiring the green slopes, fast stream, magnificent forest and distant mountains which are seen in the bluish haze.

One afternoon in the early autumn of 1580 km Santos was sitting by the window when logged servant reported that came Monsieur Feral.

Feral was known in the district of hunting and fishing, and the Auvergne was considered a great place for these classes: the purest rivers are full of fish, and in the forests of birds, deer and bears. Feral went to invite a friend along to hunt deer. Sanros regretfully declined the invitation, he waited his lawyer that had to go on business. Feral went one.

The lawyer came, as agreed, and the more hours they Santosham work-related estate, Sanros even forgot about the visit of his friend. After the lawyer and dinner, he suddenly remembered the day the invitation.

Urgent Affairs in SANASA no longer expected, the wife of the house was not there, and he, in order not to be bored alone, decided to meet his friend. He quickly walked down the path leading to the valley, and after a few minutes I saw on the opposite slope figure of his friend, all red in the last rays of the sun. The closer he got to the other, the clearer Sanros saw that his friend something excited.

When they met in a narrow valley between two slopes, the landowner saw that dress Perola tattered and covered with dirt and stains similar to blood. Feral was severely depressed and hardly breathed, so that his friend was postponed inquiries and was confined to those that took the hunter musket and a bag for the game. Some time friends walked in silence.

Then, a little gasping, but still worried, Feral told Sunrose striking about the incident, his experiences in the forest. Here is his story.

The hunter had a long time to walk around the forest, before he saw not far off a group of deer. To get to know him better, to make the shot, he did not succeed. In the end, pursuing them, he went into the thicket and felt that the way back would take time.

Turn the home of Feral suddenly heard a terrible roar, coming from wet, covered with fern gully. Slowly retreating and not taking his eyes from the place, hunter, step by step, overcame about fifty yards when a huge wolf jumped out of the ravine and rushed straight at him.

Feral got ready to shoot, but stumbled his boots came under the root - and shot missed the target. Wolf with a furious roar jumped at the hunter, trying to jump at his throat.

Fortunately, Perola the reaction was great - he struck the beast butt, and he crumpled to the ground. Almost immediately the wolf jumped up. Feral managed to snatch a hunting knife and bravely stepped towards preparing to jump to the beast. They met in mortal combat. But second break and experience helped the hunter, he managed to wrap his cloak on his left hand, and thrust it into the jaws of the beast. While he was vainly trying to get his sharp fangs to hand, Feral attacked a dagger, trying to cut the animal's throat. Hunting dagger Perola with a wide and sharp as a razor blade, with a huge arm was almost as heavy as a small hatchet.

The man and the beast fell on the ground and in fierce fight rolled sheets. At some point, they were the fallen tree, and the paw of the beast, fiercely looking at hunter bloodshot eyes, caught the gnarled trunk. At the same time Feral struck it with a knife and chopped our sharp blade flesh, tendons and bone. Wolf creepy and sad howled and, after escaping from the clutches of the hunter, lame, ran away. Feral spattered with the blood of the beast, in exhaustion was sitting on the ground. Raincoat was torn into strips, but he was relieved to discover that through improvised protection on hand were only superficial scratches. Hunter loaded musket, intending to find and kill a wounded animal, but then decided that it was too late, and if it is delayed, then he will have to get to the house of a friend in the dark.

You can imagine how excited I was listening to Sanros this detailed story, and kept interrupting him with exclamations of surprise and fright. Friends slowly walked and finally entered the garden of Santosha. Feral pointed to his sack. "I took the paw of the beast with me, " he said, " so you can verify the veracity of my story."

He bent over the bag, back to each other, so Santos could not immediately be seen that he pulls out. Muffled moan, hunter something dropped on the grass. He turned, and Santosa struck him a deadly pallor.

"I don't understand, " whispered Feroli, because it was a wolf paw!"

Sanros bent down, and it too was terrified: the grass was svezheokrashennoj hand. His terror was strengthened, when he noticed on the dead graceful fingers a few rings. One of them, skilfully made in the form of a spiral, with blue Topaz, he learned. It was a ring of his wife.

Somehow escaped from a completely stupefied with Farola, Sanros wrapped the brush in her handkerchief, and, stumbling, went home. His wife had returned. The servant had said she rests and begged her not to bother. Going into his wife's bedroom, Sanros found her lying on a bed in a semi-conscious state. She was deadly pale. On the sheets were full of blood. Called the doctor, and he was able to save the life of Madame Sanros skilful treatment of the wound: brush her hands were severed.

Sanros spent several agonizing weeks before decided to talk to my wife about this story. In the end, the unfortunate woman confessed that she was a werewolf. Apparently, Santos was not a very good husband, because he went to the authorities and told her. A trial began, and after the torture of the woman confessed their evil deeds. Soon Madame Santos was burned at the stake, and more Auvergne werewolves, undisturbed.

This story in any variation preserved in many sources. Definitely, it is one of the most striking illustrations terrible phenomenon. Now it is time to call a spade a spade, to try to shed light on this mysterious history.

Werewolf and his disgusting things were known already in the times of the Foundation of Rome. This creature was afraid, and in Ancient Greece. But, as in the stories of vampires, more than just the presence of the werewolves was manifested in Eastern Europe, where only one mention of vlkodlaka farmer turned pale and anxiously looked around.

France has badly suffered from the Loup-Garou, and folk legends contain many stories about the hunting of man-animals living in the mountains. It is quite natural that these legends are more common in rural and mountain areas, such as the Auvergne and the Jura, where wolves have caused much trouble to the shepherds. Germany has experienced a lot from this scourge. As for its distribution to the North, although England, apparently, was not too vulnerable, surviving records indicate that in Ireland werewolves dwelt.

Unlike vampire coming out of the grave, to drink the blood of living people, the werewolf is not a creature with "this" world. It is purely earthly. It seems that the person turning into a werewolf was called a kind of disease that can strike anyone. Bitten by a werewolf was infected necessarily, but the terrible symptoms could appear in person when he was safe, sat at home and did nothing that could identify him a lot. With this were related wild fear and mass executions in the Middle ages, when suspected that they werewolves, burned and were put to the sword. It was a terrible rage with which the people met manifestations inherent was thought to werewolves signs and primitive courts and mass executions were like universal hysteria. During outbreaks of violent mass fear man slightly touched by madness or "looks like" the wolf - have sharp teeth, thin stretched face - could easily be under suspicion and pleasing to the court.

Most afraid of the full moon, as it was believed that the attack strikes at this time especially often. "Struck by the moon" was found that their body has changed filthy, disgusting way, they begin to resemble their wolf and behave like animals. Having undergone such a transformation, they went to night wanderings and kill anyone who gets in their way. It is likely that they were a terrible disaster. That man turned into a vampire, he should attack the other vampire. But lycanthropy may affect anyone, and from it there is no salvation - no garlic, no pills, no cross, no help...

According to ancient treatises, true lekantrop not only changes physically, so my face is starting to look like a beast, but changes his mind, behavior. He feels only the beast. Unlike vampire he is not limited nightlife activities, the meeting him face trouble and on a Sunny day. But still the moonlight especially dangerous. Full moon man risks especially.

Affected lycanthropy quickly changed outwardly. The beginning of an attack is often accompanied by a feeling of light fever, which is then followed by fever. The man had a headache and was suffering from severe thirst. Hands began to swell and be extended and, as in patients with leprosy, the skin of the face and extremities has Grubel and bleed.

Perspiration and shortness of breath is also often accompanied the transformation taking more then a certain form. Feet began to interfere with shoes, and her sacrifice dumped, toes are distorted and has been very clingy. The mind of the victim was also changed: it became uncomfortable and cramped in the house and wanted to get out.

Then, along with nausea and cramps came complete distraction, chest began burning, language refused to obey, instead of articulate speech being published throaty murmur. When it come to that stage, lekantrop dumped clothes and got up on all fours, his torso was getting dark, covered Matt hair. Hardened the soles of the feet - naked man-beast could run over the sharp stones and thorns so, how could a normal person with sensitive skin.

The head was covered in coarse hair so that it looked as though the man wore a mask of the animal. Then, especially during the full moon, licantropa grips thirst for blood, suppressing all other senses. And he was out in the night, howling at the moon and killing all - animal or a person, who met him on the trail.

Usually he was killed, like most predators, promazyvaya neck artery. Having satisfied his lust, lekantrop fell in the forest to the ground and fell asleep. By morning the wolf man again became man. Murder at night, repentance day - this was a terrible fate of the murderer-the werewolf.

Lekantrop always felt, what was the beginning of these changes, but everything happened so quickly that suffering from this disease were to take special measures to prevent its disclosure. Those whose houses were large, was hiding in the secret rooms up until again become themselves. Other, if the attack began at night, fled into the forest, and there roared and rolled on the ground, biting and scratching tree trunks, and after tormented by the pangs of the mind in the same degree as the torments of the body.

Licantropa was little chance of healing. He was doomed to wander every night until some being more powerful than he, would not destroy his or until the silver bullet will not end his suffering. However, werewolves unlike vampires could be killed and conventional ways, but the most effective means was considered to be specially made silver bullet, right plagued the monster to death. This opinion was widespread in some areas of Europe to the XVIII century as the old story about what a werewolf is always carries with him a thick, shaggy wolf's tail. People believed that this physical feature is always preserved when lycanthropy, and when examining doctor always inquired about his availability.

There was also a view that, if to hide or burn service suspect werewolf, he will not be able to return to their human shape. This superstition was especially common in Eastern Europe and Russia.

In many countries the Holy water was considered to be the elixir against the scourge. People believed that, founded on the suspect licantropa, she physically burns coat and cleanses the victim.

The situation in which was a suspect in lycanthropy was really terrible. This attack has created a complex moral and religious problems in an age when the Church played an important role in almost all daily human Affairs.

If the authorities found out about the existence of licantropa, he was cruel fate. The most that he could count, is a quick and easy death, but this mercy unfortunate used rarely. Usually werewolves betrayed the public to the court, accompanied by torture, and then sent to a terrible punishment, often burned.

And the proof of guilt of a werewolf extracted a very cruel ways. One we have already met in the story of Madame Sanros. While most of licantropa was followed by the bloody trail that led to man, or, if a wounded animal left no traces, looking for a man that had a wound or damage where he was wounded and the wolf.

There was another "infallible" method to help identify the werewolf. During the transformation into a wolf growing thirst for blood was associated unhappy with the uncontrollable desire to break all the clothes, and, tearing it, naturally, he injured himself; the skin is damaged and, as a wolf, he ran through the forest. Therefore, when the pursuers, among which were often obsessed with revenge of the relatives of the victims, broke into the home of a suspect, he was often forced to undress, and treacherous trails became clearly visible on human skin...

Much more cruel method of determining the werewolf gave rise to the belief, widely held in Germany, in France and in Eastern Europe, like the werewolf can change your skin, just inside out, that is if he appeared in human form " does he simply turned out of human skin. And when he again will turn into a wolf, he will change the cover turned out fur. Hard to believe, but many people were literally cut to pieces "the searchers", who tried to turn out of their skin "fur on the outside".

People are stubborn by nature, he believes in what he wants to believe, and the inquisitors, not stopping bloodshed, hoping to get a more tangible evidence in St.Oia righteous struggle with the forces of darkness. Given the time and circumstances, they can understand, though cannot be forgiven.

It is unknown the exact number of people that hung and burned, accused of lycanthropy, but the number of victims, as evidenced by the old account that was significant. Obviously most of these people were clean before God and people.

And no wonder, though in this sorry situation victims "justice" desperately, with great cunning and ingenuity sought means to salvation.

Consider a few basic ways that was thought to have resorted people-wolves to hide their trouble.

Full moon, when lekantrop was particularly prone to bouts of illness, he was locked in the room and threw the key into the darkness, and when the attack was over, he had to find the means to get out. Others have produced cunning straps that fastened themselves to the bed. Often werewolves arranged refuge in the house, somewhere in a hidden place, perhaps under the roof, so that all the noise of the voices were drowned under. The Windows in their homes werewolves sought to close bars and door laid barred. Applied special constipation, beyond the beast, but which could open people.

However, all these measures are carefully prepared, only briefly delayed the inevitable disclosure. The main problem accidents "wolves" was the fact that there was no medicine against the disease.

Werewolves carried with them and another trouble. It was considered that a true werewolf can physically turn into a real wolf. French, Spanish, Italian legends tell that often some simple peasant was responsible for the tricks of the beast.

Remember, however, taught ancient records that, in addition to the "werewolves victims ' there were werewolves "at will". These people loved to be cruel. Some believed that transformation of man into beast can be used effectively plants, and in the period between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries, those who tried to become a wolf, not once was mixed strange brew.

Philosophers and other scholars for centuries conducted disputes: have werewolves really? Allowing in principle the possibility of mental disorders, such that patients felt wild animals, many authorities were of the view that to be true lycanthropy cannot, in principle.

Speaking about the true werewolf, which is able to turn into a wolf with the help of black magic or any other forces, Dominican monks James Springer and Heinrich Kramer categorically stated: "It is impossible". They argued that using different potions and spells sorcerer or magician can make someone looks at him, to imagine that he turned into a wolf or some other animal, but to physically turn a man into a beast impossible.

But nevertheless lycanthropy as illness that causes a person to think that he turned into a beast and should behave accordingly, known from ancient times.

More about 125 BC, the Roman poet Marcellus Sit wrote about lycanthropy, indicating that the affected person covers mania, accompanied by the terrible appetite and wolf ferocity. According Sideto, people are more susceptible to it in the beginning of the year, especially in February, when the disease is most common and can occur in the most acute forms.

Affected by its impact then taken to an abandoned cemetery and live there, just as fierce hungry wolves. It was believed that the werewolf is a nasty man, whom the gods have turned into a beast in punishment. In the Middle ages, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, was born the opinion that werewolves are the result of the evil machinations of witches and wizards, and as a consequence of superstition in many applied intricate procedure that allegedly able to save from witchcraft.

In Greek legend, too, can find a lot of references about wolves and about the transformation of people into beasts. For example, one of the legends says that in Arcadia people have turned themselves into wolves during a special ceremony of initiation. Those wishing to become wolves were taken on deaf swamps, where they took off their clothes and moved through the swamp on a particular island. On this island, the newcomers were the same wolves-people and lived among them as equals.

In Europe in the Middle ages the image of the werewolf has spread to other animals; the people believed that a person can turn into a bear, a pig, and even sheep, although it is difficult to imagine that in the latter case, he would be able to catch up a lot of fear on his "sacrifice"! In our days this belief in essence remains. Some of the stories that have reached us from the past, has caused much controversy among zoologists and historians.

That man may be a wolf, believe to this day in places such as the Normandy and Brittany, in folk legends match the classic - a man is wolf skin, allowing it to incorporate some of animal properties, and then he literally turns into a wolf. However, these legends left the werewolf is a chance for salvation: it was believed that if licantropa scratch near the tip of the nose to have allocated three drops of blood, the delusion will disperse. In Norway the same thought in werewolf turned people, excommunicated from the Church.

In the district of Cote-d'or (France) legend about the werewolves have a strange detail: it is considered that a person can be a werewolf only a certain period, usually ten or seven years. Where did these figures? Apparently, we shall never know.

Most of the stories regarding lycanthropy, French or German origin. But many quite authentic stories about the werewolves and licorice (the state when a person begins to imagine themselves wolf and experiences ravenous appetite together with other horrible symptoms) exists in such countries as, for example, Austria or Russia. However, among the Slavic peoples of the legend about the werewolves are very closely intertwined with the legends about the vampires.

With lycanthropy faced many peoples and at all times. Know many legends on this topic. But although these legends were born at different times and in different places, they are surprisingly similar to each other and differ sometimes just the smallest details.
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