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Viewings: 5280When in 1933 to power in Germany Hitler came, the radio station of the Third Reich began broadcasting in all European countries. Flows of Nazi propaganda pouring out of the ether, particularly intensified since the outbreak of the Second world war. From the Soviet Union then took urgent and adequate response to the Nazi ideologues who through radios were treated consciousness of millions of people.
Our response to Goebbels
In 1940, the USSR government made a secret decision to erect a modern powerful radio station for broadcasting for long and medium waves, which could listen not only Soviet, but also foreign citizens. Initially it was planned to build near Kursk, and here in the beginning of 1941 even managed to deliver some equipment. However, immediately after the war, the government decided to move the object away on the East Bank of the Volga.
On this account was made a top-secret order of people's Commissars from July 1, 1941 "About the construction of the station in the Kuibyshev district" (so at that time was called the current Samara). Forces management of special construction (CSS) of the NKVD of the USSR was ordered to erect the world's most powerful radio transmitting center.
Terms of execution of governmental decisions were originally set very rigid: a voice of the Soviet Union the whole world must hear no later than October 15 of the same year.
In early July 1941 Commission of the people's Commissariat of communications and the NKVD of the USSR visited eight sites around the regional centre. The challenge it faced a difficult, because the requirements for the location of the future radio station was put mutually exclusive.
On the one hand,the object was to make the most closed on all sides, so that it even from a distance could not detect enemy aerial reconnaissance. On the other, the propagation of radio waves were not supposed to interfere with mountains and other natural obstacles. It was impossible to build a radio station and in immediate vicinity to the town, because in this case it antenna would be clearly visible to all local residents, and most importantly - the uninvited guests. But to stray too far from the developed transport arteries, too, was unacceptable because of this increased and the cost and construction time.
In the end, the Commission has decided on the area near the village of Old-Semeikino Krasnoyarsk district, Kuibyshev region. By order # 038 on July 23, 1941 specially for construction of stations in the structure of the CSS of the NKVD of the USSR was established construction №15 assigned to it by the Department of Bezymjannaja. This number is then assigned and most of the constructed object. A project Manager was appointed an experienced engineer Leonid Kopytin.
On the same day to the site brought the first group of 300 prisoners. But soon worked on the construction of almost six thousand prisoners, who were mostly employed in the excavation for the Foundation pit technical building and on the concreting of the protective plate. According to the project, this plate would save the radio station even provided direct hit it with several 500-pound high-explosive bombs.
And in close proximity to the technical building spidermen trust "stalkonstruktsia" began the installation of the eight delicate towers antennas. According to the project, four towers in group a were to reach a height of 200 meters, and the same structure of group "B" - 150 meters each. Throughout the Middle and Lower Volga region is nothing more significant in size until that time never built.
Academician of the Gulag
Despite the high concentration of the labour force, the first time the facility # 15 in the action were ripped off. According to the decree of people's Commissars, the main volume of orders for the Kuibyshev radio stations by the end of August 1941 had to perform Leningrad plants of the people's Commissariat of electrotechnical industry of the USSR. However, when in the middle of September the radio equipment was manufactured around the city on the Neva is closed ring the enemy blockade. Attempts to export the ready equipment bombings across lake Ladoga succeeded only partially.
Therefore, by October 1941, transmitters and other systems of the facility №15 was staffed by only 30 percent.
It was then on the personal order of Stalin from the system of Gulag began to withdraw specialists on radio communications and radio equipment trapped here by the notorious 58th article of the criminal code of the RSFSR.
Among them was the doctor of technical Sciences Alexander Mintz, who in 1938 was sentenced to 10 years in prison camps on charges "of sabotage and undermine the defensive might of the USSR". In August 1941 he was provisionally released and was appointed chief engineer of the construction №15, and the Third was promised that in case of a successful job homeland, he will receive a full pardon.
Under the leadership Mintz was developed detailed plan of placing orders for the missing equipment. In this part of the equipment new chief engineer recommended to manufacture in the USA. In his words, in our country it was impossible to get the desired quality of these products.
The NKVD for such a plan, and especially the comments to it, Mintz again tried to blame for the 58th article, this time in the "glorification of foreign equipment". However, the scientist was on his, explaining its position only the interests of business. The order for the necessary equipment was given to one of the American companies, but only after its approval GKOs and personally by Stalin.
Moscow broadcast from the Urals and Volga
The first test transmission Kuibyshev radio stations on medium wave took place on September 29, 1942. First broadcast went recording of the song "Black sea" in the performance of Leonid Utesov, and then for four hours passed music Soviet composers. However, the audio level was low, due to numerous defects as to the radio station, and on the speaker line between Kuibysheva and Moscow.
On elimination of defects employees of the object №15 gave two months, but to do it in time prevented the accident. In the middle of the day on November 18, 1942 in the conditions of dense fog in one of the 200-meter towers suddenly crashed into the TB-3, carrying out flight from factory №19 (city Molotov, now Perm) on Kuibyshev plant №24. On Board, in addition to the crew, there was a cargo in the form shirts for aircraft engines.
When hitting the tower at level 72-meter mark the whole structure collapsed, and the plane fell to the ground and caught fire. None of the six members of the crew to escape failed. The state Commission investigating this accident came to the conclusion that the reason of the tragedy was pilot error, which in conditions of fog lowered the machine to an invalid height.
On the restoration of the ruined tower antenna builders took almost a month and a half. In connection with such delay experienced exploitation of the object №15 at half power of the primary transmitter only began on January 22, 1943. And from March to September 1943 through the antennas of the station went on the air of the voice of Yuri Levitan, reading summary owl-formore.
However, he had to start working at the site №15 in October 1941, but because of unavailability of equipment legendary announcer then had to go not to Kuibyshev and Sverdlovsk. However, the fact that Levitan during the first two years of war had not been in Moscow for a long time remained the most important state secret.
After the war, Kuibyshev radio almost without repairs for more than 60 years. Its rare stop was a scheduled preventive nature. Only in 2005 the station was decided definitively take out of service as morally and physically obsolete.
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