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Viewings: 4962Mysterious figures in the Peruvian desert Nazca, the biggest piece of art in the world, one of the most outstanding and at the same time unexplained creations of man, were the little-known until 1939. In that year, pilots, flying over the desert valley on a small aeroplane, drew attention to the strange pattern of randomly overlapping long straight lines, interspersed with strange brains and flourishes, which was noticeable in certain lighting conditions.
This discovery aroused great interest. Originally archaeologists have suggested that this is the remains of an ancient irrigation system. For their study in Peru went archaeologist Paul Cosquer from the University in long island (USA).
From the air the patterns looked immense, but on the earth because of the uneven surface of the Cosquer barely found them: "Line could be seen, only if you look at them along. A few yards away - and nothing could be noticed". After the first thorough studies surprise Kosaka no bounds: his drawings was that it was a clear image of the big birds, to distinguish from the earth which was impossible. As it was possible to create such a picture? The Cosquer explored the valley, and found the outlines of a huge spider, followed by dozens of other drawings depicting either animals or geometric patterns. He could not understand who was this mysterious artist and what was that the people who left behind such works of art.
In 1946 the Cosquer gave his notes Dr. Maria Reiche, German mathematician interested in ancient observatories, whose name is connected almost all the "canonical" history of the mysterious drawings of the Nazca desert. Since then Maria Reiche, who became the world's largest specialist problem Nazca, working almost alone, learned a lot about how to create these paintings. She hurried to fix the exact dimensions and coordinates all figures and lines, until they were destroyed by tourists and cars.
As has established the Reich, the drawings were made in a fairly straightforward way: yellowish earth was of lines lined with a thin layer of dark stones. But, even physically, this work does not seem severe, the project was complicated.
Reich believes that the authors of the drawings were used fixed unit of measurement equal to 0.66 see, like the megalithic yard Alexander Volume. Then the figures were laid on specially built to scale plan, which was transferred to the surface of the earth with ropes attached to stones-markers, some of which can be observed today: "the Length and direction of each piece was carefully measured and recorded. Approximate measurements would not be able to play such perfect shape that we see aerial photographs: deviation by a few inches would distort the proportions of the figure. Photos taken that way, it helps to imagine what an effort it cost the ancient craftsmen. The ancient Peruvians, must have possessed the equipment that is not even in us and which, together with the ancient knowledge was carefully hidden from the invaders, as the only treasure you can not steal".
Glory to the Nazca lines brought Erich von d?niken and other seekers of traces of space aliens. The desert was declared nothing but ancient cosmodrome, illustrations - kind of navigation signs of alien ships. Another version was that the figures in the wilderness are a map of the sky, and in the desert, there was once a Grand ancient Observatory.
Famous Gerald Hawkins, astronomer, who understood the mystery of Stonehenge, arrived in Peru in 1972, to see if there were any pictures of the desert Nazca signs indicating communication with astronomical observations (such marks was not there). He was surprised that line unusually direct - reject is not more than 2 metres per kilometer. "Such a figure would be impossible to create even using photogrammetric survey, " he said. - These lines are absolutely straight, we would not have received such a result, even our modern aerial. And this straightness persists for many miles. Because of creeping on the earth thick fog line sometimes become invisible. But they continue in the same direction on the opposite side of the ravine, and they are the same straight path released arrow".
Maria Reiche sure that only touched the ancient secret: What is the most impressive ground in these figures is their huge size, combined with perfect proportions. How could they depict figures of animals with such precise contours and fine-tuned in size - riddle that we will solve not soon, if ever solve". Reich did, however, one stipulation: "If, of course, they could not fly".
It tried to prove bill Sporer, resident of the USA in Peru, member of the International research society. The people who created these patterns probably came from two similar Nations, known as the Paracas culture and Nazca, which in the period before and after ad engaged in agriculture. But these peoples are known for their success in the art of weaving and decoration clay products, and this gave Sporera the clue. Four pieces of fabric Nazca looted from the grave found near the Peruvian figures, were examined under the microscope. It was found that the ancient Peruvians used in their best matters interweaving than we use in the manufacture of modern parachute cloth, and stronger than in modern fabrics for balloons - 205 110 threads per square inch compared to 160 90. On clay pots were found out images of items, reminiscent of balloons and kites flying ribbons.
Starting the investigation, Sporer came across an old Inca legend about a little boy named Antarcti who helped Incas in battle, flying over enemy defenses and reporting on the location of their troops. On many tissues Nazca depicted flying people. These legends arose a long time ago, but we know that today some Indian tribes of Central and South America do for their ceremonies balloons and launch them during the ritual celebrations.
Another mystery is the so-called "campfire pits", which over many straight lines. This round pits about 10 meters in diameter with charred stones. Sporer along with several other researchers have studied these stones to determine if they are craters from the fall of celestial bodies, and made sure that blackened they from exposure to strong heat source. Maybe this place was divorced big fire that warmed the air inside the balloon?
In November 1975, this theory was put to the test. Only those materials and technology that could be available to Nazca Indians, was built balloon. Under it lit a fire, and the ball went flying with two pilots in a reed basket. From all the hypotheses regarding the origin of such a perfect pattern idea with the Orb was the best. But the purpose of all this are still unclear. Maybe it was a form of burial, and the bodies of the dead leaders Nazca was sent black balloons into the embrace of the sun God? May be, birds and other huge creatures symbolize the eternal life of these leaders? But why did they have to such straight lines? There is no answer...
But there is evidence that the ancient such a commitment to accuracy was very common. There is a clear similarity between the Peruvian figures and findings on the other side of the world: Stonehenge and many famous megaliths different unusual geometric accuracy. By the time when they were lined Peruvian patterns, tradition megalithic structures already faded, so direct evidence of communication of two cultures not. But don't be too hasty to assume that the levels of development of these cultures, in which illiterate people used mainly stones were similar; and that the art of creating ground drawings died with the appearance of written language and civilization.
Peruvian drawings are one of the wonders of the world. Until final unraveling the mysteries of them, however, still far away. Except that there is no version of runways for space ships. Reich categorically reject the possibility that the Nazca lines were boarding the signs of aliens: a hypothetical space aliens are unlikely on such a primitive level, in order to put a stone figure. In addition, "if you move the stones, you will see that the ground underneath quite soft, " says Maria Reiche. "I'm afraid that astronauts would be stuck in the ground..."
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