Viewings: 5594Since the ancient Greeks, this mystery does not rest lovers secrets. The eternal question, there are already two and a half thousand years.
First of Atlantis wrote the great ancient Greek philosopher, Plato, works which are based today's explorers and seekers of the sunken island. All that Plato was known about the mythical Atlantis, told in his two dialogues "of Crete" and "timey". In them ancestor of Plato of Crete remembers conversations ancient Greek sage salt with an unnamed Egyptian priest. The conversation took place in the VI century B.C. the Egyptian told me, referring to the sacred Egyptian texts, that there was a great country Atlantis found behind Gerkulesovy pillars, which were killed in a terrible accident.
"...There was an island which lay before the Strait, which is called in your language Gerlovina pillars. This island exceeded its size Libya and Asia put together... On this island called Atlantis, there arose a great and worthy surprise Union of kings, whose authority extended over the whole island... they possessed Libya up to Egypt and Europe until Tirrenia... But later, when the time came for the unprecedented earthquakes and floods... Atlantis disappeared, plunging into the abyss. Then the sea in those places was until today non-navigable and is not available because of the destruction caused by the huge amount of sludge that is left behind settled the island" (Timaeus).
"Nine years ago there was a war between those peoples who dwelt on the other side Herculean challenge of the pillars, and all those who lived on this side... the latter was our state (that is, Athens), and headed the first - kings island of Atlantis; as we have already mentioned, this was once the island twice the size of Libya and Asia, now he failed due to earthquakes and became impassable mud, enclosing the path to mariners" ("of Crete").
In ancient times appeared supporters and opponents of the existence of Atlantis. The hypothesis was supported by Pliny the Elder and Diodorus Sicilian opponents was Aristotle and geographer Strabo. Controversy continues to this day the number of published works on the problem of Atlantis exceeded five thousand, and versions about the location of Atlantis exceeded tens. Added to this is a lot of occult, theosophy speculation about Atlantis, and a large number of "research" "lovers of atlantaga"whose activity, according to A. Goreslavskii, "brought more harm than good, since their efforts interesting problem ancient civilization completely moved scientific curiosities". As soon as any Kurilis the "Atlantis": attributed to all peoples of the world, the origin of the Atlanteans, called them by aliens from outer space, considered Atlanteans "ancient Russ", give them some unprecedented wisdom and "secret knowledge" and so on. Well, "poor people! - you can repeat after the Marquis de Kostina. "They need to rave to be happy".
By the way, Plato calls Atlantis island, and from his text does not mean that it was the whole continent. From the text of Plato it is obvious also that the civilization of Atlantis - the same archaic civilization of the bronze age, as the Ancient Egyptian civilization, the Hittites, Mycenae, the Indus valley, Mesopotamia, Atlanta had kings and priests offered sacrifices to the pagan gods, waged war, their army was armed with spears. Atlanta was engaged in the irrigation fields using channels, built ships, worked metals: copper, tin, bronze, gold and silver. On a large scale iron, they probably did not apply. Anyway, Plato about it does not mention. Therefore, inventions about some "highly advanced" civilization of Atlantes can only call empathy.
Doubtful that Atlantis could exist in 9000 BC Long and fairly noted that at that time there were neither Egyptians who could write about these events, nor the Greeks, allegedly committed his exploits. The first traces of Neolithic culture in Lower Egypt belong approximately to the V Millennium BC, the Peoples who speak the Greek language, appeared in Greece only in the II Millennium B.C. Hence, Atlanta couldn 9600 BC to war with the Greeks, as the latter did not exist. All the facts mentioned in the story of Plato, not allowing to bear the lifetime of a civilization of Atlantis next second Millennium BC
In accordance with the instructions of Plato's Atlantis was placed for Gerkulesovy pillars - the Strait of Gibraltar, in the middle of the Atlantic ocean. Small archipelagos - Azores, Canary Islands and the Bahamas was called the remains of the sunken continent. Rejoicing caused the event of 1898, when laying a Telegraph cable between Europe and America is a French vessel in 560 miles North of the Azores lifted from the bottom of the ocean gem, which upon closer inspection turned out to be a piece of glassy lava. This lava could be formed only on land at atmospheric pressure. Radiocarbon Dating was able to establish that the eruption of the mysterious volcano occurred in about 13 thousand years B.C. However, in addition to lava in this place nothing more could be found.
In 1979 Soviet research vessel "Moscow University" made a series of photos of a submarine mountain Amper. They were sealed with the remains of some structures. But the mystery remained unsolved. Besides, there are serious doubts in the correctness of the interpretation of images on photo - most likely, this could be the natural relief of the seabed.
After the discovery of America there was speculation that this continent is the legendary Atlantis. With this hypothesis, in particular, was made by Francis bacon.
X. Schulten in 1922 gave the idea that under the Atlantis should be understood known in ancient times the city of sails the Hostal Castillo, who was in Spain, at the mouth of the Guadalquivir river, and a sunken about 500 BC
In the 1930-ies A. Herrmann expressed the hypothesis that Atlantis inhabited the territory of modern Tunisia and was buried in the Sands of the Sahara.
French scientist F. Gidon assumed that in the legend about Atlantis, the history of immersion in the sea of the North-West coast of France. In 1997 this hypothesis revived and developed the Russian scientist, a member of the Geographical society Century Kudryavtsev has stated a hypothesis that in the result of this event was scuttled the so-called Celtic shelf - bottom modern North sea, between France and southern England. Shelf this is shallow and has some similarity to that of the captive's coastline. Almost in the center of this flooded the territory of the Bank is little Sol - remarkable underwater height at which, according Kudryavtsev, and was the capital of Atlantis: "the city is located on a hill with a cliff into the sea." However, according to the hypothesis Kudryavtseva, Atlantis is not an island, but a part of the European continent, but the author of the study believes that in ancient Egyptian language was not individual words to transfer the concepts of "earth" and "the island".
At the end of the ice age as a result of the rising sea level and went under water considerable territory in Western Europe which was Atlantis, the former center of a highly developed culture. Attempts to link destruction of Atlantis with increase of level of World ocean after the melting of glaciers always met serious opposition. It is believed that this increase was gradual and occurred at different speed for several thousand years. Critics of this hypothesis argued that the flooding associated with this increase does not reflect on the effect described by Plato: "Atlantis was destroyed... one horrible day and one night".
But Plato says: "Then... there were earthquakes and floods of unusual destructive force, and in one terrible day and one night for all your warriors were absorbed by the earth, and the island of Atlantis was also absorbed by the sea and disappeared." The mention that has accompanied the catastrophe of the earthquake and floods in the plural says that the disaster occurred not for one day.
In 1988 the American paleoglaciological X. Heinrich were published data obtained in the study of bottom sediments in the North Atlantic, which testified to the fact that at least six times during the last glacial period was the large-scale fast gatherings of ice into the ocean from the territory of present-day Canada. Judging by the fact that we are talking about many millions of cubic kilometers of ice, these events could not but lead to a marked rise in ocean levels.
German pastor Jurgen Spout put forward in 1953 the theory that Atlantis was located in the Baltic sea near the island of Helgoland. He based his hypothesis on the fact that in this place at a depth of 8 meters, in the highest part of the underwater ridge Steingrund, were found the remains of destroyed settlements.
The version that Atlantis is Antarctica, recently put forward by the American Rand of Flem-At. He drew attention on the words of Plato that Atlantis was easy to move to other Islands, and from there - on the whole the opposite mainland, which frames the true ocean. Because the sea on this side of the Strait of Gibraltar is only a Bay with a narrow passage in it." Flem-At assumed that the legendary Atlantis was located in the Antarctic. And brought arguments in favour of the hypothesis. Comparing the configuration of the legendary island with the outline of Antarctica, according to Flam-ATA, shows a striking similarity. Although the Egyptian map Atlantis placed in the Atlantic ocean, Flem-At believes this is a mistake that believed and Plato.
Traditionally it was believed that Antarctica is covered by ice during the last 50 million years. In 1990, however, geologists have found frozen in ice remains of the trees of the age of 2-3 million years. But on the famous map Piri Reis, made in 1513, depicted Antarctica without ice. On the map Urantia Finney, delivered in 1531, Antarctica marked mountain ranges and rivers. Thus, it is not excluded that Antarctica in the memory of mankind was Maslennikova. And the catastrophe with Atlantis-Antarctica, was the same accident, when there was a shift of the earth's poles.
Most justified today is the version that the metropolis of Atlantis was an island of Santorini in the Aegean sea, the civilization of Atlantis identified with Cretan-Minoan civilization. However, like all the others, this hypothesis is not devoid of some irregularities, but it is confirmed by numerous data of archeology, history and Geophysics.
The assumption that Atlantis was located in the Eastern Mediterranean, first expressed Italian Bartoli in 1780. And in the end of XIX century excavations of French scientists drew attention to the island of Santorini. The Central part of the island of Santorini many years ago plunged into the water, and the remains of it today are three Islands - Tira, Thirassia and Aspronisi. Archeological finds testify that once flourished here quite high culture. The inhabitants of the island of Santorini knew a system of measures and systems of calculation, they produced lime and built complex vaulted structures, painted wall murals. They have successfully developed agriculture, weaving, pottery.
Santorini probably was one of the centers of Crete-the Minoan civilization. Around 1500 BC, this civilization was at the Zenith of its prosperity. The inhabitants of Crete early mastered processing of metals and began to trade. It is believed that the island of Crete was the first major Metalworking centre in Europe. Methods of farming in Crete and described in Plato's Atlantis practically coincide. There are many other matches - in the political system, social and cultural life.
The capital of Crete-Minoan state was Knossos, the "Great city", glorified by Homer. The fleet of the Cretans dominated the sea, extensive trade and numerous wars contributed to the strengthening of the state. About 1580-1500 years BC Aegeus, the king of Athens, was defeated by king Minos of Crete and Athens were forced to pay tribute to Crete. But suddenly Cretan civilization ceased to exist.
In 1972 L. Figue expressed the view that Plato's Atlantis was an island in the Aegean archipelago sunk as a result of geologists political disaster. This island could only be Santorini, part of which sank in the sea, and the remainder was covered with a thick layer of volcanic pumice. And on January 19, 1909 K.T. frost published in London "Half" the hypothesis that the story of Plato Oh Atlantis is a literary-philosophical story about the death of Crete-the Minoan civilization. And further excavations and studies have shown that about 1520 BC in Santorini was an explosion of a volcano, as a result of which the Central part of the island was destroyed and flooded. The explosion led to catastrophic consequences in the Mediterranean. Suffered most of all Minoan the state of the Village and the fields were buried under volcanic ash and slag, a giant tsunami washed away in a sea of dozens of cities.
And how to be with the date of the destruction of Atlantis - 9000 years ago from date of a conversation salt with the Egyptian priests? If we accept the date of the catastrophe 1500 BC, it turns out that the destruction of Atlantis was not 9000 and 900 years ago. This error, according to the researchers, could occur because of differences in systems of calculation used in Egypt and Greece.
So what is the secret of Atlantis disclosed? To say it today for sure, perhaps no one will dare. Although the "Cretan-Minoan" version explains almost everything said by Plato, questions still remain. And with them, remains a mystery...
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