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Отрицательное тяготениеRepresentatives of the National Aeronautics and space - NASA said at a press conference in Washington that astronomers have obtained the first direct proof of the existence of the mysterious negative gravity, penetrating all of our Universe.

For the first time a guess about the negative gravity showed even albert Einstein, predpolozhenii that outer space is filled by invisible energy that creates vzaimosoedinenie between heavenly bodies, usually experiencing, on the contrary, mutual attraction is due to gravitational forces. The evidence in question, is based on a thorough analysis of pictures of the explosion of the most distant known stars pictures, accidentally made the orbital telescope Hubble in 1997 year.

This mysterious force, which he called the cosmological constant that Einstein himself seemed so strange that he later abandoned his guesses. However, this idea has received the support of theoretical physicists in 1998, the year when it was discovered that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, and that this process due to the negative tendency, which exceeded the usual gravitational forces in the past few billion years. Since the intensity of the negative gravity is very small, it is hardly felt in the habitual world. But on the vast astronomical distances and a huge amount of space, its effects are enough to push the galaxies and galactic clusters, and more to alienate them from each other.

Exploding stars, the so - called supernova, like a star that suddenly appeared in a photograph taken orbital telescope Hubble, can give strong evidence of the existence of these mighty mysterious forces. By the way, a star on the pictures exploded already 11 billion years ago, but because of the incredible distance its light came to us only now. Theoretical physicists believe that when it exploded, the universe was four times younger, and the cosmological constant, which is often called dark energy, has lost her power of gravity, which it now, the opposite is superior. For this reason, the expansion of the Universe in her youth was slowed down. This implies that at the time of the supernova explosion was closer to Earth than it ought to be, based on calculations, based on prevalence in the epoch of dark energy, not gravity. This can be judged by the brightness of the stars. Astronomers maintain that the picture it twice brighter than she ought to be in line with the previous theories.

Data photography was analyzed by the staff of the Baltimore Institute of orbital telescope under the leadership of astrophysics Dr. Adam Rice, who said that he had now no doubt in the existence of dark energy. Astrophysicist from the University of Chicago Dr. Michael Turner called experimental observation of this energy most important scientific discovery of our time. "If Einstein was still alive, " said a scientist, he would get a Nobel prize for predicting the repulsive gravity". Dr. Turner added that now the researchers will search for the source of dark energy and focus efforts on watching other distant supernovae stars to reveal the characteristic features of this energy.

Our universe is expanding since its violent explosive birth, which occurred on calculations about 14 billion years ago. Until recently, astrophysicists were almost certain that the gravitational attraction between galaxies hamper their recession. But in 1998 year two research groups involved observations of supernova stars, proposed to use the results of these observations to measure changes in the rate of expansion of the Universe in the past few billion years. Moreover, the observers used the same class of supernovae that explode every time approximately the same brightness as light bulbs known power. This stability has allowed scientists to measure the speed with which the expanding universe took particular Swede in space Dahl: the more dull look at these stars, the further they had to fly away. During all these observations, astronomers have discovered suddenly faint supernova: whether their light was partially absorbed by space dust, whether they were further than expected, probably dropped an anti-gravitational forces. To solve this riddle, astronomers have attempted to discern objects that were deleted from billions of light years. "We needed to see stars that are located on the other side of the Universe" - said on this occasion Dr. Peter Newgen of the National laboratory behalf of the Lawrence Berkeley, who worked with Adam Rice. The researchers reasoned that if the light from the supernova really absorbed cosmic dust, but their light must be the dimmer than these stars farther away from us. If properly explanation Einstein, and super-far stars shall retain their brightness.

Because of the weakness of its luminescence and absorption of light by the earth's atmosphere far away from us supernova explosions seen very rarely. But in 1997, the year Dr. Ronald Gilliland from the Institute of orbital telescope and Dr. mark Phillips at the Carnegie Institution in Washington photographed with a long exposure through the Hubble telescope tiny patch of sky and found pictures supernova, remote from billions of light years. Very laborious and time consuming analysis of the radiation of the star revealed that she was twice brighter than it should be in case of its absorption of light by space dust and in case of its typical cosmic evolution. As explained physicist and major specialist in the supernova from Berklee Dr. Sol Perlmutter, the brightness of the stars was not consistent with generally accepted theories. It was not so. Thus the cosmologists like it or not, will have to deal with the Universe, filled with mysterious agents that cannot be seen and cannot fully explain. Dark energy is becoming now the same invisible part of the cosmos, as the so-called dark mass. However, the gravitational effects due dark mass of well-known and, despite its invisibility, it is assumed that this mass accounts for a large proportion of the total weight of our Universe.

Now astrophysicists are making vigorous efforts in trying to find out the sources and explain the exact nature of dark energy. As many researchers think that these questions are in the focus of the most important problems of modern physics.

Another astrophysical research forced to doubt in the other fundamental constants.

Researchers from the USA, Australia and great Britain, under the leadership of Dr. John Webb from the University of South Wales in Sydney studied the behavior of metal atoms in the gas cloud, located at a distance of 12 billion light years from Earth, between our planet and distant quasar, the brightness of which is equivalent to 10 trillion suns. The detected differences from the expected pattern in the absorption spectrum of items such as magnesium, zinc, aluminum and hydrogen, according to scientists, inexplicable without assumptions of changes in the fundamental constants. Reuters notes that at least 3 of them is the speed of light, Planck constant and the charge of the electron. Spectral observations conducted in Hawaii on a powerful telescope, the Keck Observatory in Mauna Kea. Absorption spectra of the elements that the fingerprints of the individual. However, the impression is that "fingerprints are changing over time" - said in an interview with the new York times Michael Murphy, one of the authors of the study. The thing is that primary data on the spectra of magnesium, zinc and hydrogen in the cloud, absorbed radiation from the quasar, slightly different from the similar spectra, reproduced in laboratory conditions on the Ground. Experts, whose opinion was accompanied by the publication of the article, according to the new York times, there are no obvious mistakes in the interpretation of the results is not found. And measurement of the authors recognized as very accurate, but because they may have for the science of the far-reaching consequences, and the differences identified subtle, many researchers are configured skeptical and believe that the opening must pass the test of time and, therefore, to have independent confirmation. On the other hand, the assumption of impermanence known permanent fits some avant-garde theory, expressing a new view of the universe, for example, fits well into the idea of the existence of the extra dimensions in the framework of string theory. Nobel prize in 1979 Dr. Sheldon Glashow from Boston University assessed the importance of introducing an international team of astrophysicists open to "10" a ten-point scale.
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