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Viewings: 5551Modern astrophysics is based on the predictions of relativity, relativity and quantum theory.
Each of the above theories introduced in modern science its fundamental constant:
- the speed of light in vacuum (C),
- constant of gravitation (G)
and Planck constant (h).
Moreover, if the first two are naturally present in the General theory of relativity, describing the General properties of gravity and matter, quantum physics, based on a fundamentally different compared to GRT a axiomatics, as it alone. In this axiomatics full significance - for quantum physics, the existence of the classical determinirovannogo (not probabilistic) description of the properties of space-time continuum needed to the same extent as the existence of classical observer whose state is described deterministically, not a probability.
The history of science is replete with examples of what "new is well forgotten old". Almost three centuries ago, sir Isaac Newton was the first who tried to answer the question, what is prostranstvo and time. According to Newton, space and time were a certain way of organizing of events with different forms of matter does not depend on them. Kind of scene played out the play produced by nature.
In the early twentieth century, albert Einstein questioned the invariance of the properties of space and time, showing that the geometry of four-dimensional space-time is determined by the energy of matter and gravity is nothing other than a reflection of the fact of its curvature. However, Newton's theory of gravity, and its generalization - GENERAL did not question classicism (deterministically) properties of space and time. Moreover, the Creator of GRT albert Einstein was one of the most consistent critics of quantum theory, stimulating the development and deepening of its views.
Apparently, the first who attempted to unite quantum physics and gravitation was PAM Dirac, who drew attention to the remarkable fact that fundamental constants h,c,G naturally constructed value of the dimension of length, time, density, called the Planck parameter. The values of these quantities extraordinary modern physics only-only approaches the study of the processes occurring at the subatomic level, structure of matter, and the Planck length unit is less than the characteristic size of the atom almost 25 orders of magnitude. Nowhere on Earth can't we play and capture processes that could be characterized by time interval, 43 procedure below one second. Finally, nowhere in space we don't face energy releases or other matter that almost 93 order denser than normal water. But we do not find anywhere in normal conditions and the manifestation of quantum properties of space - time, typical for the above Planck conditions!
On a scale greater than the Planck parameters for spatial and temporal intervals, the space time has a classical properties and there is a unit of General relativity. As approaching the Planck parameters deterministic way to describe space-time continuum becomes unusable space and time become essentially quantum objects, properties, which are still not fully clear.
Impressive and the level of energy density, imprisoned in matter and gravitation in extreme condition, characterized Planck units of energy (ten to the power of 130 erg in cubic centimeter!). Here it is concluded source of expansion of the Universe? It is no accident chabrowski expansion of galaxies reminds expansion of products of the explosion of the atomic bomb! Involuntarily, an analogy with the situation in atomic nucleus, formed in the late 30's and early 40-ies of our century. Because even then physicists realized what a huge energy sosredotochena in an atomic nucleus. It seemed that this energy is securely hidden from us by a powerful shell nuclear forces. However, for some of nuclei for instance of uranium, this armour, figuratively speaking, had insignificant "defects", manifested in the form of spontaneous radioactivity. But not passed, however, and ten years since its opening, the humanity had experienced the horror of Hiroshima and Nagasaki! Using this analogy, the legitimate question is not whether we face in investigation of the reasons of expansion of the Universe with the manifestation "spontaneous radioactivity" matter and gravitation on extremely small spatial scales?
Note that the answer to this question lies outside the framework classic" physics. We fully enter the world of the unknown is an area where so far we can speak only about hypotheses, rather than about the completed scientific theories. However, as you know, is not whether we can expect in the very near budushee a repetition of the situation with the atomic nucleus, when the most pessimistic forecasts were refuted by reality.
Below we elaborate on the discussion one of the most attractive working hypotheses of modern cosmology, in which the problem "Big Bang" - the problem of the expansion of the Universe becomes quite complete paths. "Bezumnoi" ideas formulated in the works of prominent physicists of our century - D. Wheeler, S. Hawking, AB Zeldovich, A.D. Sakharov A.D. Linde, A.A. Starobinsky, and others, is that our universe is a giant fluctuation topology more General superspace associated with vacuum state of physical fields.
The properties of this state must radically different from the usual properties of space-time. First, its rank is not necessarily equal to 4 (three spatial and one temporal coordinates). Moreover, vacuum, as the main condition of matter characterized by zero physical charges - therefore, there is no classical instrument able to fix any order of events, and therefore is not there and the very concepts of space and time, as well, and causality. And, finally, being purely quantum object, vacuum physical fields fluctuates, generating topological anomalies ubbles", which are born and die. Inside each of the bubble, you can enter the notion own time, the direction of which captures the evolution of matter inside from the moment of birth to the moment collapse". The overwhelming proportion of these "bubbles" is the time of life, comparable to the Planck time and outwardly manifest themselves as closed mini - Universes. This kind of "boiling" vacuum - the birth and death of virtual Universes is a generalization to gravity well known in quantum physics effect of vacuum polarization - the birth and death of virtual pairs of particles - antiparticles. In atomic physics, this effect leads to the so-called Lemovskogo shift of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom.
However, for our Universe Planck time, typical for the virtual mini-Universes, is almost 60 orders of magnitude smaller than the modern age of galaxies. What was detained by our "bubble" from virtually instantaneous collapse? It is obvious that the Universes of our type are obvious anomalies. Initially stable condition of the vacuum in the result of fluctuations in the topology of education "bubble") became unstable with respect to our Universe. This instability leads to the fact that inside "bubble" vacuum begins to change their svoistva, aiming at a new sustainable limit. This process of restructuring of the vacuum accompanied by gigantic release of energy, resulting in "bubble"- the universe began to expand at an enormous speed. This process can be interpreted as a kind of explosion of vacuum explosion "void"!
Naturally, the enormity of the scale of the explosion, its conditionality quantum-gravitational properties of space-time, liassidi beyond the modern "classical physics"can cause a certain lack of trust to discuss the hypothesis. However, the historical experience of science, especially in the last decades, demonstrates the fruitfulness of such "crazy" attempts to look beyond the border of the known. In principle, the question and the answer is waiting for their researchers.
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