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Viewings: 3795Of great importance for understanding the world has a problem of numerical correlations between atoms of different elements. Any of atoms in the world anymore? This question is very important for solving the puzzle of the origin of the elements - riddles mutual transformations of matter in the universe, and to solve the most important question of all natural Sciences - the question of the origin and development of the starry realms.
In our day science has already managed to find ways of approach to these big questions. And they can't pass the periodic law. The theory of the formation elements, developed on the basis of studying of physics of the atom leads to a very important conclusion that the relative prevalence of atoms of a particular element in the Universe is determined by the charge on the nucleus, i.e. its number in the periodic system of elements of Mendeleyev. This means that this property of the element, as the prevalence in the universe is determined by the structure of atomic nuclei, the laws of their formation and transformation, the laws of the new, emerging in our time of chemistry of the future of nuclear chemistry.
And what is most striking, nuclear chemistry already discovered the existence amazing, ' magic" patterns indicating not yet known periodic law in the structure of atomic nuclei of different elements. This mysterious law is manifested in the periodic dependence of the stability of the atomic nuclei of the serial number of the element in the periodic table of Mendeleyev.
Periodic pattern in the chemistry of nuclear transformations is very similar to the law of the periodic change in the chemical properties of elements, which was opened by Mendeleev. Mendeleev's periodic law has led science to unlocking the mysteries of the structure of the external parts of the atom.
But in our days of nuclear chemistry leads to a very interesting and important results. One of the most important is the creation of the theory of the prevalence of chemical elements. It is based on the teachings about the sustainability of atomic nuclei and the probability of their education.
This theory leads to the conclusion that the relative number of atoms of each element in the world depend on its position in the periodic table from its atomic number. And the prevalence of elements, too, is a very interesting and strange periodic dependence: in a world dominated by atoms with small rooms, standing at the beginning of the periodic table; the atoms of elements with even numbers in the world (86%)than their neighbors - elements with odd numbers (14%).
Scientists geochemists study the composition of the earth's crust, study the laws which govern the movement of items in the course of millions of years, those geological epochs, when formed deposits of iron ore, coal seams, gold placers, deposits of diamonds. It is absolutely necessary to know the total reserves of each item on the globe. They have done thousands and thousands of analyses of rocks and minerals. They found a great way to appreciate the power of layers formed by mountain rocks, determine how much does it weigh mountain ranges, what is the thickness of the continents, how much water is in the ocean, how much of it in the clouds and the clouds, how much salt in all seas and how many of them gold.
Geochemists managed to make a wonderful table showing the reserves of each of chemical elements on Earth.
This is a very interesting table. It shows that the lion's share of the composition of the globe have only six of the most common elements: iron, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, aluminum, calcium.
Together they account for 94% of our planet by weight. The most common oxygen and iron, 1 000 000 000 000 000 time (10 ranked 15th in the extent more than most rare items, such as polonium or sea anemone.
If to compare available in all the Land of iron, cobalt and Nickel - elements, standing in the eighth group of the periodic system, it appears that the earth is of iron (atomic number 26) by 36.9%, cobalt (atomic number 27) 0.2%, Nickel (atomic number 28) 2.9%.
The title of this section, it was stated that it will focus on the chemical composition of meteorites, and still it was about the composition of the globe. But, first, the Earth is also a celestial body, and, second, it is necessary to know the chemical composition of the Earth to compare it with the composition of meteorites, coming to us on the Earth from the mysterious depths of outer space.
Precise chemical analysis of a huge number of meteorites that fell on our planet, and yielded remarkable results. It turned out that if we calculate the average content of all meteorites most common on Earth elements: iron, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, aluminum, calcium,on their share fall exactly 94%, i.e., in the composition of meteorites is the same as in the composition of the globe.
In addition, it was found that in iron meteorites
If we compare these numbers with the relative distribution of these elements in the world above, it is absolutely amazing coincidence: it turns out that on the Ground of these three items accounted for
ie, and on the Earth and meteorites these elements are approximately equal proportions. These and many other matches were found have allowed scientists to make a conclusion: the substance on Earth and the substance in heavenly space equally. It consists of the same elements.
Each of the elements and the Earth and meteorites has almost the same isotopic composition. For example, repeatedly carried out the analysis of isotopic composition of sulphur extracted from the ashes and lava numerous volcanoes, located in different parts of the globe, have shown that sulfur same everywhere. Everywhere the ratio between the amounts of stable isotopes of sulfur -32 and sulfur-34 one and the same. It is 22,200. The isotopic composition of sulfur from meteorites is the only representatives of the Cosmos, available direct the study, absolutely the same as on Earth: S32/S34 = 22,200.
Later it turned out that the most common elements are the same. Even the ratio between them, and here and there the same. The alternation of elements with odd and even numbers in the periodic table also observed the same, and here and there. One could, of course, to cite a lot of examples, which show a great similarity in the behavior of chemical elements on Earth and in space, to mention a lot of the General laws.
Could it be random? Of course not.
Wherever arrived to us on Earth random guests of the Universe - could this be part of comets, belonging to the solar system; it may be the wreckage of small planets; this may be messengers from another star in the world - it's important one: the chemical composition, the relationship between the elements, for the chemical compounds that are found in meteorites, they tell us that the action of the great law Mendeleev not limited to limits of our planet. He is one for the whole Universe, where there may be atoms, their electronic shell. The matter is everywhere one.
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