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Проект 'Кластер' раскрывает тайны магнитосферы ЗемлиAccording to scientists, the project Cluster" will help to make first three-dimensional map of the Earth's magnetic field It is the Alliance of four satellites, scanning parameters of the magnetosphere, revealed huge, up to 40 thousand kilometers, vortices at the magnetopause. And apparatus Cluster" found many other interesting things - for example, the zero point of our magnetosphere.

The mission of the European space Agency (ESA)called Cluster" (Cluster), was launched in 2000 to near-earth orbit with the help of Russian carrier rockets "Alliance". The successful launch of two satellites from Baikonur "Baikonur" in Kazakhstan occurred on July 16, 2000, and the second pair of satellites was launched after the first month. Small enough group of four identical satellites smoothly start their orbital dance, no wonder they were given the names: "Rumba", "Samba", "Salsa" and "tango"!

The first launch of this mission on 4 June 1996 with a rocket "Ariane 501" crashed almost in the beginning, right after the start. However, in four years, satellites have been recreated again with the command Cluster", which ensured the success of a difficult and complex mission. In 2010 was marked the tenth anniversary of operation Cluster"successfully performs its functions in orbit. It is a long period for satellite mission. Her work is complicated by the fact that the old solar panels, reducing the flow of electricity, batteries deteriorate. It is known that the equipment Cluster" lost seven batteries, two of which broke out, and departed from the satellites. However, the equipment is working, transmit telemetry data about parameters of the environment in which they fly! It is planned that the operation of the satellites will continue until 2012.

In addition, now in ESA considered the question of extending the mission until 2014, if the equipment will continue to work safely. Satellites Cluster" hardy and the Executive, despite some technical problems! The scientific objectives of the mission Cluster" - detailed study of the earth's magnetosphere, which till now was not carried out. A group of four satellites delivers unique data on variations of magnetospheric parameters, which allows to analyze the processes carefully and in detail. This is the dignity of the mission.

According to the head of mission Filipe Eskubi (Philippe Escoubet), Cluster" provided us with lots of data to better understand the physical processes of space weather". Let me remind you that space weather (level of perturbation of the magnetosphere, or geomagnetic activity) depends on solar activity. Sometimes in the magnetosphere powerful magnetic storms occur - they are fixed geomagnetic Observatory.

Modern devices, equipment and means of communication, based on high technologies, sensitive to the variations of space weather. Therefore, the long-known General idea of the magnetosphere should be studied in more detail and deep! The magnetosphere is enormous - it is a cavity in which manifests own dipole magnetic field of the Earth, and occurs magnetosphere due to the effects of the solar wind flow over her almost continuous variable flow.

The main geomagnetic field value 0.5 Oersted always complemented by an alternating magnetic field: this is similar to the deep ocean, the surface of which is the calm, excitement or powerful storm! Its variation AC generates the impact of the solar wind - radial departing and filling the solar space of the plasma flow with "frozen" it interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).

The solar wind plasma neutral is mainly protons with small amounts of alpha particles (helium nuclei) and fascinated by the electrons. Its density varies from units to tens of particles per cubic centimeter. The speed of the solar wind - from the average 300-400 kilometers per second up to high-speed flows, reaching approximately 1500 kilometers per second.

The magnetosphere is always facing the Sun frontal part of which runs into the solar wind, and in the antisolar direction pulled her long plasma tail. We can say that it looks like a long drop from the pea of Land in the center of the hemispherical frontal part.

The interaction of the solar wind with the Earth magnetosphere is in the process called magnetic reconnection. When the vector of the magnetic field of the Earth at the magnetopause (the forefront, on the boundary of the magnetosphere) is opposite in direction of the interplanetary magnetic field reconnection intensified. This is a necessary condition for the occurrence of the magnetosphere of perturbation. Spatial parameters of the magnetosphere change in the whole volume, plasmodiidae regions are transformed.

So there Aurora, disturbed radio, there are ripple components variable geomagnetic field, and this is not a complete description of the beginning of geomagnetic perturbation. If the energy of the solar wind continues to enter the magnetosphere, develops a magnetic storm. It is implemented by the combined effects of a stream of particles of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

Cluster" is the key to a three-dimensional map of the Earth's magnetosphere" is expressive and clear the title of the report of Goran Markland characterizing the basic function of the mission. It is the Alliance of four satellites, scanning parameters of the magnetosphere, revealed huge - up to 40 thousand kilometers - vortices at the magnetopause. They arise when the difference of the streaming velocity of the plasma. This phenomenon is caused by instability of the Kelvin - Helmholtz and is analogous to the wave phenomena that have adopted such a large-scale vortex shape.

Such magnetic waves Kelvin - Helmholtz help the particles of the solar wind to penetrate into the magnetosphere, i.e. the processes at the magnetopause large-scale turbulent, and the particles of the solar wind provided a systematic flow inside the magnetosphere on power lines of a dipole magnetic field.

Specialist Kuhn-Joo hwan from the Center of space flights of the name Goddard (US) notes that when the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field on the West or the East in the plasma of the magnetopause in high latitudes is implemented instability Kelvin - Helmholtz and there are penetrating particles of the solar wind. Picture of swirling flows resulting from analysis data Cluster". Now the situation penetration of solar plasma inside the magnetosphere has a theoretical substantiation of the model and the view.

However, discovered the possibility of penetration of particles of the solar wind to the magnetosphere of the Earth has not changed significantly climate and water balance of the planet, as it happened on Mars. We have to find additional factors that have obezbedile Mars and Venus. And will they have the same nature?

It is noteworthy that the penetration of solar wind plasma in the magnetosphere of the planets and exoplanets detected with reasonable certainty, and whether the solar wind sweeping water or blow off the atmosphere from the planet is yet to be explored. Anyway, on Earth, in this respect, the situation is quite well, because over billions of years, leaking on Earth, dehydration of the planet has not happened.

A very interesting fact, confirmed data Cluster"related phenomenon "black Aurora". This quaint electric phenomenon is caused by a lowering of electronic components (as opposed Aurora caused by the invasion of electrons). This raises black proguly in the auroral lights, conditionally they can be defined as "Antivari"when is pumping electrons from the ionosphere.

In the end one cannot but note that Cluster" provided for the first time three-dimensional image of the zero point is very important, unique region in the Central region reconnection of magnetic fields at the magnetopause. In this region the field was twisted into a tube with a width of 500 kilometers.
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