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Viewings: 7301Land of the ancient Egyptians stretched from North Africa to the far South on the river Nile. From left in the memory of the people leaving only the monuments of the past ages - majestic temples and pyramids. When to conquer Egypt Napoleon arrived, the local people could not tell about their purpose. For Muslim Arabs pyramids were just huge pagan structures. Over the centuries of Arab rule pyramid lost his wonderful facing, and now conquerors looked bare stone walls rising, tapering toward the heavens. Once, reported Arab chroniclers, pyramids were entirely covered with ancient characters.
"Pyramid built of huge stones... the Stones are covered with ancient writings that are now no one can read. In all of Egypt I met no one who would say that knows how to read this letter or knows of such a person. Inscriptions great many here, and if anyone had a desire to rewrite only those that are visible on the surface of these two pyramids, he would fill them over ten thousand pages. Desire, obviously, nobody had arisen. The Arabs were not interested in the purpose of the pyramids, much more worried about their legends about the pyramids, because it was considered that in these structures buried the ancient lords of the Egyptian pharaohs, and buried with all imaginable and unimaginable wealth owned in life. There, passed from mouth to mouth, unprecedented amount of gold and precious stones. The history of the pyramids long and storied tales, and the Arab sultans seen in the pyramids wonderful Treasury, the entrance to which is lost. Some of the sultans, having heard such tales, dreaming to possess the treasures, looking for secret passages, and one of them even came up with the idea to break through the entrance to the pyramid of Cheops through the side.
Al-Mamun - unlike many - was interested not so much in gold (he was rich, as in stored inside the pyramid (so he said numerous spies, who were engaged in the elucidation of the mystery of the pyramid of Cheops at local residents owning actually only legends) card of the star sky and all the Earth - Sultan was an astronomer and even translated into Arabic "Almagest of Ptolemy. In addition to the star and the earth maps he had expected to find there the weapons that are not subject to corrosion, and glass, which does not beat, and which can be bent. For such wonderful things he decided to bust a move in the huge stone blocks from which the pyramid is composed of. Because the stone was extremely strong, scientist Sultan applied excellent knowledge of the laws of physics: first bits were hammered with a hammer in the stone, then it was heated red-hot, then poured wine vinegar - stone gave up and gave cracks. Thus, working Sultan struck a move to the center of the pyramid. By the way, predatory move there in the pyramid until now. By a strange coincidence it was almost next to this entry, once in possession of the secret swing: the multi-ton stones rose and left hand, but it had to find a hidden rotator. In the Egyptian papyrus was this statement: "in the Middle of one of the sides of the pyramid is the stone. Move it, and before you open a long passage". But in the middle of what wall, which is a stone? In ancient times this input was not secret. Description Strabo, it inlet led in a very long and narrow corridor, then in a tiny room, which had a descent into deep wet hole almost at the base of the pyramid (in antiquity this hole was a kind of landmark: antique tourists visited her, then to boast that they had been inside the pyramid!).
But time passed, the place of the stone forgot. Sultan, of course, could not find a rotary device, although he was aware of his existence, but he had a thirst for gold subjects, and they struck the entrance to the monolithic plates - the work must have been excruciating. But they were lucky: they not only became laid in ancient times the corridor, but were able to gnaw out the way to the so-called burial chamber of Queen, and then with the same agony broke into the burial chamber of Pharaoh, where they found an empty stone sarcophagus. Gold was not. The Sultan, who did not want to disappoint the plunderers, paid for their services in full with gold. In order not to disappoint his companions-hunters, he had hidden treasures inside the pyramid, allowing greedy partners yourself to find it!
According to one legend, al-Mamun found a sarcophagus in which lay a stone statue of Pharaoh, and inside the statue was found in his body, adorned with gold and precious stones, in the hands of Pharaoh was holding a sword that does not corrode and has power over men, but is a legend. Al-Mamun not found in the pyramid nothing, only lost at this event time and money.
In fact, the scientific study of the pyramids has begun exactly Napoleon. In his Egyptian campaign he took not only soldiers, but also French scientists to those described antiquities of Egypt and thus perpetuated the memory of the commander. Napoleon was tortured by envy for another great commander - Alexander the great, so it is quite clear why it took him in the army meaningless ballast like historians and geographers. At the time of combat operations this ballast was gathered by the soldiers of Napoleon under the protection of French weapons together with donkeys, but none of the scientists did not murmur. "Donkeys and scientists in the middle," was his order, scientists and academics gathered into the fold - so passed this campaign. Probably, not only the thought of the glory forced Napoleon to take on the war of those who it is absolutely useless, there was another secret thought: Napoleon knew that military action can damage the ancient sites, so if fate them to be destroyed, it will be at least a description. In this respect he was a prudent man.
This secret thought, by the way, was not redundant. When the French seized the Giza plateau, the soldiers of Napoleon showed the true face of Europeans: just for fun, they shot Egyptian Sphinx. Unhappy sculpture survived many centuries of Board of pharaohs, Roman rule, the Arabic conquest, but she was completely powerless before the artillery ignorant of the French. The main damage done to the Sphinx, he had received from the army, which, in Gorky coincidence, brought scientists for the study of antiquities! So, apparently, Napoleon knew very well his soldiers and feared their readiness to erase Egypt from the face of the earth. It was a curious sight: soldiers, pranauskas in sight shooting the stone giants, and scientists, hastily zarisovyval that may be doomed to destruction. Napoleon's army, of course, caused a lot of damage. But the pyramids, the Sphinx has managed all the same to resist. They stand still - mysterious and huge structures, attracting attention as Egyptologists and ordinary tourists. Those in the measure forces try to carry out of Egypt ancient stones, only it is almost impossible - in contrast to European architectural antiquities like the Parthenon pyramid difficult to take away the stone: too these "stones" are large and heavy.
Pyramid, as no one, perhaps, of ancient structure, cause many disputes and assumptions, Some scientists are trying to find the true purpose of the pyramids, expressing diverse, sometimes a wild hypothesis, others continue to believe that the pyramid tombs of pharaohs. The latter is a dogma of Egyptology, and to deal with this dogma is almost unthinkable. Open any school textbook, and even better - a textbook on the history of the Ancient world for students, and there you will only find this great interpretation: the pyramid tombs of the pharaohs, although, by and large, there is no archaeological evidence that the pyramids were built with this purpose! None of the famous pyramids were not detected even plundered burial. Empty sarcophagus - Yes, but no trace of that before in the sarcophagus was the body of the Pharaoh. No, on the contrary, all known burial places of the pharaohs found in the so-called Valley of the Kings is well protected Egyptian tombs of the nobles. Wonderful burial of the young Pharaoh Tutankhamen was also found not in the pyramid, but in regular tomb, which, fortunately for Egyptology, was non-devastated.
This tomb in the autumn of 1922 opened archaeologist Howard Carter, and literally in the same area, where he spent the excavations of a decade ago. The tomb was located under beggars fellah's huts, which eventually archaeologist ordered to carry. Then opened well hidden entrance to the underground shelter of Tutankhamun. Although the front burial chamber was sacked, the second chamber was not robbers touched. In this underground chamber was concealed truly Royal relics, was not moved and the sarcophagus of Pharaoh himself. Now the sarcophagus, the burial of the Golden mask, the mummy
Tutankhamun and the things collected for him happy afterlife, are several of the Museum halls and open to tourists. With the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb is one mystical story. It is believed that all who had the misfortune to open the tomb of the Pharaoh and learn things from the tomb, died before the appointed them by the nature of time.
On the Giza plateau has three big pyramids, that, according to the established legend, belong to the three kings of the 4th dynasty - Khufu (Cheops), the Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaure (Mikerina). These pharaohs ruled Egypt 5 thousand years ago. Information about what tombs of the pyramid,at that they do not come from Egypt, and from ancient source. It was in ancient times, when Egypt was an ancient state, and there are legends about the purpose of the pyramids. Describing their modern Greek historians have received their information from the Egyptian priests, and it is likely that those priests, they misunderstood or themselves priests already forgot who, when and why erected a giant building. You know, if we do really can not say about the early history of Kievan Rus, and it is a mere one Millennium, how many secrets was forgotten for 2,5 thousand years - so much time has passed from the 4th dynasty to antiquity. Even with incredible precision transfer ancient information Egyptian priestly class very much for thousands of years could be lost or misconstrued.
By the time of Herodotus, who described to us as a function and design and the building of the pyramids, priests-tellers could lose the lion's share of ancient knowledge. This is especially true since the time of Herodotus only few could read the sacred ideographic writing, on which were written the priestly secrets. The issue is complicated by the fact that all three great pyramids are not within any of dedicatory inscriptions. In addition mistyped the name of Khufu, the pyramid never found the name of Chephren, no name Mycerinos, who allegedly two other pyramids belong. And it also suggests that these structures have never been intended for burial of the pharaohs. The age of our great pyramids, calculated by geologists, is sharply at odds with those offered by archaeologists. As at the pyramids and the Sphinx found traces of water erosion. And this is an indicator that the pyramids were built by the time the 4th dynasty that they are much more ancient than the Egyptian civilizations!
Another thing is that the pharaohs who ruled over Egypt later, could use ancient buildings for their own purposes - and for burial. So the reference in the text of Herodotus use of pyramids as tombs specific pharaohs can be fair. We know that in the time of the pharaohs was carried out repair of the Sphinx, archaeologists even found quite physical traces of such repairs. But the pyramid - apparently the same age of the Sphinx - Millennium could wear out and also to require repair. For Egypt they were sacred buildings. It is under the pharaohs 4th dynasty and was the ultimate updates pyramids. We also try to save and restore ancient monuments. If the pyramids were only tombs would not be in them a great mystery. However, Arabic texts of the middle Ages tell us that once each of the three great pyramids of Giza were facing, and on the faces of the pyramid were recorded some ancient texts. The Arabs say that these texts were the set of all known knowledge. But they could be wrong because in those days the language of the pyramids was firmly forgotten and texts not know how to read.
The first Egyptian texts were read only in the first half of the XIX century thanks to the works of the young French academic Champollion. But Champollion couldn't read, if during the French campaign would not have been found the inscription on the Rosetta stone, done in three different languages - Egyptian syllabic writing, ideographic writing and in Greek. Only thanks to the Greek text and managed to decipher the language of the ancient Egyptians. To Champollion was offered to read hieroglyphs as pictures: drawn the lion means, and the word is the "lion", drawn IBIS - hence the word "IBIS". Self - interpretation of Egyptian texts in this way gave the most ridiculous lyrics. The Arabs knew much less about the ancient language, and they didn't have the Rosetta stone. In the inscriptions on the lining of the pyramids they saw some traces of pagan beliefs and they stripped all the trim and... decorated with floor plates in their main mosque! Still, you can see some of the Egyptian plates, if you visit this mosque. But probably to the flooring went not all the plates facing. Yes, and to the Arab-time partly facing already was lost
The birthplace of mathematics is considered Greece. We all remember about the great Pythagoras. However, the birthplace of mathematics Greece never was. The Greeks wonderfully used the knowledge gained from the Egyptians. The Egyptians had an excellent knowledge of geometry, they opened the rule of the triangle, and he used his triangle as the standard for all land and construction works. To lay out a field for crops, they built the areas of triangles. And did it quickly and efficiently. Each surveyor was measuring the rope. To lay out any field, it was necessary to have such a rope-separated nodes in the ratio of 3:4:5, and three workers. In the right place count Egyptian drove in the stake and pulled the rope on the first node, the other holding her by the average site and also put a peg, and the third was trying to pull the cord and connect the beginning and the end, it was a place for the last peg. With a little skill on the field marking took very little time!
But measures of length they were complex: the fingers, hands and elbows. Therefore, the values were obtained fractional. For example, for the image of the construction plans for the unit of account was taken one ceced - otherwise 5 /4 palms or 5 hands and 1 finger. And on district Egyptians considered at the elbows. Triangle Egyptians gave mystical meaning, and it was called in Egypt the sacred triangle (of course, not every triangle, and the one who had the aspect ratio of 3:4:5 and a right angle at the base). Each of the parties was dedicated to a certain Egyptian God: side - Mount and Osiris, and the hypotenuse - ISIS. Although the triangle was sacred, the knowledge of his sacred properties was not secret. Knew about it any Egyptian student or peasant. Even a song of that era sang this: God of the Mountains is the number 3, the God Osiris is the number 4, and the goddess ISIS - number 5. In sum was sacred number 12, the Acute angle at the base of such a triangle is equal to 53 degrees 08 minutes. This is the corner and was used in the great pyramid. And probably that is not the pyramids were built according to the sacred triangle, the triangle became the sacred due to the existence of ancient pyramids, Egyptian legend built not by the pharaohs of the 4th dynasty, and some of the first rulers of Egypt's gods.
Judging from the size of the pyramids, the construction was truly a divine reality. The pyramid of Cheops was 155.3 m, the pyramid of Chephren - 143,5, pyramid Mycerinos - 72 meters Monstrous dimensions. The Egyptian pyramids are the basis of a square the side of 233 m from the pyramids of Cheops, 215 - Chephren, 108 - the Mycerinos and height to the top respectively: 137,3, 136,5, 62 m Angle at the base varies between 53 degrees 12 minutes and 51 degrees. All three pyramids not built up to the top, or, as some argue, destroyed by time. But very strange they collapsed! All three pyramids fall short of the perfect height almost to the same extent. Look what would result if the pyramids were built with the ideal angle of 53 degrees 08 minutes and had no cut tops: 146,6, 143,5 m, 66,4 m considering building an error, they almost meet the rule of the sacred triangle! Do the math and you can see that the ratio of 3:4:5 not violated. Sacred triangle. But... why?
There pyramids another interesting feature. It concerns two great mathematical numbers of PI and the number Phi. PI is the number that enables you to operate with concept of a circle, that is, to transfer the line into an arc. The famous problem of squaring the circle is related to the number PI. And the number Phi is a number, re-open only during the Renaissance, it is also called the Golden section or Fibonacci series. But it is remarkable the number was well known to the Egyptians, and belongs to the same sacred triangle. Fold the legs of the triangle:
3 + 5 = 8.
3 + 5 = 8
5 + 8= 13
8+13 = 21...
We will provide the numerical series of the Golden section: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21...
About this mystery guess after the Millennium in the year 1202 Leonardo of Pisa, and Leonardo da Vinci will call this the mathematical law of the Golden section. The Egyptians knew about it ages and ages ago. But this law is built all the harmony of our world. All we are beautiful, that has the power, freshness, health, beauty, created by the law of the Golden section. Three our hands, feet, face, body, even the shape of the ear is subject to the law of the Golden section. Great Pythagoras, who learned in Egypt priestly secrets, called this the main law building harmony as the "division in average and extreme respect", otherwise a + b: a = a: century by solving this equation as a square, you will get the basic parameters of the Golden section: 1,618 and 0.618. Isn't that amazing that pyramid - we think they are beautiful - built according to the law of the Golden section?
Some scientists find in the ratio of the pyramids and much more interesting parameters. Another scientist from the Napoleonic campaign Jomar suggested that the pyramid never was the tomb of Pharaoh, and was sort of metric sign to create a kind of benchmark measures invulnerable stone pattern. He was convinced that the Egyptians wonderfully mastered not only geometry, but also in astronomy, which caused his contemporaries Homeric laughter. However, Jomar this was right: today, more and more scientists agree that the Egyptians were excellent astronomers. And in this respect, the pyramid may be key to this knowledge. In fact, if you take note, as if the great pyramid was completed when Cheops, before Cheops it was used for other purposes. The pyramid of Cheops (and others pyramids) in an unfinished until the peak variant can be beautiful ancient... telescopes. Scientists have considered possible variants of such device and came to the conclusion that if you were buriedother Luggage Pharaoh was not yet constructed, then this building has an observation platform instead of the king's chamber on a flat base and going back down the shaft with the slot - slot-oriented most "sustainable" for latitude Egypt the star Sirius (Sothis), as well as internal reservoir, built in such a way that the stone gap reflect, served as an excellent means to observation of a starry sky.
On the use of water mirrors and a narrow gap with the mine to observation of a starry sky wrote Century Vasiliev in the article "the Second birth of hydrooptical": "Indeed, let us imagine that in the center of the cave, there is a pond, and on this reservoir in the ceiling of the cave is a hole made. The water flowing into the reservoir, spinning in slow whirlpool... With such a telescope near the equator without flat mirrors to see the sun spot to watch the moon as one solid body spherical shape... to distinguish between binary stars and satellites of the Solar system". The Egyptians was not a cave, but a pyramid with a water mirror. Even by modern standards, it was a very good telescope, allowing to make the most accurate astronomical calculations. But then... then the Egyptians not only were aware in astronomical matters, and had wonderful to own astronomy, almost on a modern level!
Proof of this can be seen not only in the fact that our pyramid is suddenly not a tomb, and the Observatory, but how are all three pyramids on the Giza plateau. And the location they, by the way, very interesting. The pyramids on the Giza plateau are in a certain order, when viewed from above, they are not in a straight line, though, is oriented to the cardinal. These deviations from the straight allowed scientists to assume that the "big pyramids show how located Venus, Earth and Mars in their orbits 10 532 to R. X.! Moreover, the method Sharaf-Budnikova allowed to set the date: 22 September to novoorleanskom calendar! The earth then was strictly between the sun and the constellation of Lion". This is one opinion that belongs E. Menshova.
Other experts consider building of the pyramids to an even earlier age from 21 600 years to 75 000 years. But this is a... Yes, again we are faced with the assumption, that the history of mankind should be much longer than we used to think. But then the Egyptian pyramids were built not Egyptians. And no, it means that the army of slaves that pulled on the wooden rollers stone monoliths? And the guards didn't have to whip whipped negligent workers? As for slaves, and the scourge of the overseers, and when Cheops on the construction of a pyramid were busy not slaves, and the fellaheen, there are people forced in some way, but personally free, and they built in the period when agricultural work were not possible, because of that, and turned out a total of twenty years of work. Moreover, they get paid, which managed to contain his great family. But the pyramids are still not built Khufu, and unknown to us the deepest antiquity, which according to the legend, were gods and founded the first dynasty, on change which then Pharaoh came a man Less, known as the first Pharaoh of Egypt, a descendant of the gods. From ancient Egyptian history preserved information that the architect of the pyramid was Imhotep - the high priest, it is likely that it was Imhotep and rebuilt pyramid due to a decay. The Creator of pyramids called and God Thoth or - according later version of Hermes Trismegistus - Hermes Trietilenglikol. It is likely that this name hides the special meaning: thanks to Hermes and were built three great pyramids, for which he received the title Trietilenglikol. And the Giza pyramids can be seen as a special complex, not only as an Observatory.
The scientists drew attention to the peculiarities of the Cheops pyramid in ancient times it could serve as a solar calendar, showing with great accuracy the most important astronomical milestones - the days of equinoxes (spring and autumn) and summer and winter solstice. Once surrounding the pyramid area was laid out in a special way fit the plates with the symbol. The shadow of the pyramids was held on these boards, as the hand of the clock on our usual dial. And if the ancients information is correct, the lining of the pyramid sparkled in the sun, so it is possible that focused not even the shadow from the pyramid, and a shining arrow lozhivshemusya on stone foundations! But Observatory and stone calendar is not everything.
There is an assumption that at Giza was the medical complex. And it is quite probable, as on reconstruction of one specialist around the pyramids were built pools, where the afflicted were received healing baths, in different parts of the plateau found the remains of the temples. Besides it is known that Egyptian temples already a later period sure was in the service of the priests-doctors. In addition, the pyramids somehow been connected to the Nile river through a system of channels, suggest that under the rocky base of the pyramids are the remains of channels and underground passages. That is, the pyramids were linked not only visually, but also by a network of underground communications. As for the pyramids, the question, of course, controversial. But the fact that there is an underground gallery from Sphinxes (there were two, and a pair Sphinx now found) to the pyramid of Cheops is the fact. Even in ancient times about the existence of such a move was well known.
It is believed that the pyramids were something of a plant. After all, we find the same strange glass vessels with soldered pins too much like for our lamps... and There are numerous legends about the magic lamps that are used in the pyramids. And to explain how the ancient Egyptians held internal painting of the pyramids, tombs and temples, if on the walls and ceiling not found any trace of koptsik torches - only, in our opinion, a possible lighting in rooms without Windows, it is impossible, unless one does not assume that artists were unknown to us devices for lighting. Some even suggest that they knew something like solar panels.
On other assumptions - the pyramids were stores of water in times of drought. On the third, it was a huge granaries. On the fourth " what was this occult centers where future priests received the mystical initiation. According to Hancock, the pyramids were cosmodrome, where star gods out into space. So far, none of the assumptions have not received confirmation from the very beginning, scientific, that pyramid buried their dead pharaohs. Just from all the variants, this is the most hopeless.
If you find yourself on the Giza plateau and will enter the great pyramid, you will have to go a long and difficult path inside the pyramid. Difficult this way not only because of the heat and stuffiness, but also because starting from the very first step you have to go practically on all fours - only child will be able to freely at a low predatory mine, which goes from the entrance to the womb of the pyramid. To go you will have all down and down, postalias on wooden stairs until the start of the corridor, rising up, in the so-called chamber of the Queen. Then on the Great gallery you can climb the burial chamber of Pharaoh. "This long gallery with a high ceiling, describes his journey inside the pyramid Century Lebedev, its also unique: its walls consist of carefully adjusted stone blocks, and limestone slab cladding false vault stacked so that each subsequent layer sets in earlier. Ahead of another attraction - room - gateway, which tourists often do not know. But this is the gimmick was a trap for the robbers, which would fall cargo sand with hideaway bed, and the way to the treasure of the Pharaoh was blocked by a hard grating, falls, on slippery slots. Remember strings of Ivan Bunin that saw the invaders broke into the burial chamber of the great pyramid: "Bringing torches which shone forth, as black ice, szlifowane-granite walls of that peace, in terror he backed off stood in the middle of rectangular and also all black sarcophagus. It was a mummy in Golden armor, sprinkled with precious stones and a Golden sword at his hip. On the forehead same mummy red fire burned huge carbuncle, all in writings, incomprehensible not a single mortal..." And here I come into the camera "Cheops - ruler horizon", as he was ordered to be inscribed on his pyramid. The magnificent tomb. Amaze its dimensions: length - 10.5 m, width - 5.2 to, height - 5,8. This room, with dark Aswan granite, makes some reason to stop on the doorstep. It has a special dark charm, its mood, and possibly a mystery. Maybe because she suddenly a huge, black, empty, and only in the distance, near the Western wall is a lonely ominously-reddish sarcophagus".
Alas, this is the end of the road. Other rooms in the pyramid of Cheops not found yet. There are suggestions that somewhere in the depths of the pyramid there are secret rooms. According to one account, even the XIX century, travelers accidentally clicked on any stone in the wall, and they opened a corridor they entered the room filled with half buried in the sand with a strange metallic mechanisms. But where is this secret stone? Where is a secret room with the ancient technique? Nobody knows. Japanese scientists managed to spend a miniature camera through a slot inside monolithic blocks from the room with the coffin, and the camera showed another any premises, empty, and then clearly viewed the heavy door with unclear shiny copper handles. Yet to get to that door nobody else did. Maybe it is the room where the pyramid will reveal to us all the mysteries? And it is likely that this area will be empty, as it often happened in the history of the studyI'm Egyptian antiquities.
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