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Viewings: 8422The Incas (correct "Inka") is an Indian tribe, the ancestors of the Quechua Indians inhabited since the XI century, in Peru and created one of the most ancient civilizations in South America.
In 1438, Indian tribes, led by Inka, formed state Tauantynsuyu with the capital city of Cusco. Form of government was theocratic despotism. Subjects have been indoctrinated that the ruler of a state Supreme Inca is a living God. Before the conquest and destruction of the Spanish conquistadors in 1532 - 1536, the state occupied the territory of modern Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Northern Chile and North-West Argentina. Incas invented nodular letter, for their architecture characteristic of cyclopean buildings, with virtually complete absence of decor. Jewelry products (including Golden garden with plants, birds, butterflies, human figures made of gold and silver) mostly killed during the Spanish conquest and known from the descriptions. According to legend, Incas, their ancestors came from some who died at sea States.
At the turn of 20 - 30-ies of the XVI century on the territory of the Inca state was invaded by the Spanish conquerors, adventurers and thugs led by Francisco Pizarro. They walked the country "with fire and sword", plundering, killing and taking into slavery of its inhabitants. In 1532 conquistadors stormed the capital, the city of Cuzco, captured and treacherously killed last ruler of the Inca Atahualpa, for liberation which was previously paid a huge ransom gold. However, after this Incas another 3.5 decades continued fiercely resist ruthless and cunning overseas aggressors.
One of strongholds "guerrilla war" of the Incas was the "Mountain City", known under the name of Machu Picchu, which was never set foot of the Spanish conquerors. The majestic ruins of this invincible city are eternal monument to the heroic struggle of the Incas against foreign oppressors.
After Spain managed to break the resistance of the Incas, the residents left the remaining inaccessible Machu Picchu. During the following centuries, people have forgotten its location, destroyed the road to it, and only transmitted orally from generation to generation legends of the descendants of the Incas - Quechua Indians - told about its history.
Rediscovered Machu Picchu in 1911, the American historian and archaeologist from Jenskogo University Herem Bingham. The purpose of his expedition had sought refuge last Incan leader, who after a failed uprising against the Spanish conquerors in 1535 disappeared in the tropical forests of the foothills of the Andes. Inspired by the amazing stories, heard from the natives, Bingham made his way along the steep slopes of narrow and deep canyons full of asphyxiating fumes, climbed covered with snow peaks, once again descended into the sweltering heat of the coastal forests of the Amazon. He did not retreat at nothing to achieve their goals and eventually reached her.
Before him lay the ruins of the great city that was built a few hundred metres above the raging rapids of the river Urubamba in the "eagle's nest" between the top of Machu Picchu, which in the language of Quechua Indians means "old peak", and pyramid "young top" - Juan Picchu, which ascends to heaven to a height of 2700 m above sea level. Streets, staircases, houses, temples and other buildings were here skillfully "mounted" in the magnificent scenery. On the broad slope of Machu Picchu is a necropolis with stone on which, apparently, was made mummification of the dead.
Various architectural buildings and terraces rising up to the seemingly unapproachable peaks, which is a real Testament to the incredibly high level of skill of the builders of this unique city, which was once able to accommodate up to 10 thousand people.
What purpose did Machu Picchu, than was for the residents of this city? Its stone buildings make up a unique ensemble. No one civilization in the world had managed with such perfection to connect with each other with huge stone blocks. And how the Incas, not applying in the sector of the wheel, managed to move and deliver on their construction sites these heavy rock, still remains insoluble riddle. The ancient masters squared stone procurement with the help of the stone and bronze tools, and then displayed adjacent faces so that they adjoined to each other across the surface almost no gap.
The answer to the question about the original purpose of the city give the results of archaeological excavations. From 173 mummies found by researchers, 160 are women-owned, the rest are remains of men and children. Based on these and other findings, the scientists came to the conclusion that there was erected an unprecedented scale abode "Virgins of the Sun", servants one of the most venerated by the Incas deities. The most beautiful girls were selected from all ethnic groups constituting the people of the Inca lived here in complete isolation from the rest of the world. They could not marry or enter into an intimate relationship without the permission of the ruler. The girl, who has broken the vow of "purity", risked being buried alive, her native village could destroy, and all her relatives, as well as other residents of the village, kill.
Land cultivated for crops that were located around the city in the form of hundreds of narrow terraces no more than 2 metres wide. On them for centuries cultivated corn, potatoes, tomatoes and even grown luxurious tropical flowers. In addition to its agricultural purposes, terraces performed the functions of a natural defensive structures.
Machu Picchu from all sides surrounded by forbidding the slopes of the Cordillera Vilcabamba. In the city, as was customary, the Incas, was led by the only road with only a gate. Individual city blocks are connected by stone stairs, playing the role of the streets. One of the tallest structures among the remaining buildings - the temple of the Condor. In the Central part of the stone city, in the immediate vicinity of the Temple of the Sun, is a rectangular area. Here is located the famous Intihuatana that in the language of Quechua Indians literally means "the place where binds the Sun". This is sort of a combination of solar hours and astronomical instrument. Here during the winter solstice, when the people were struck with fear from the fact that Sun wants them to leave, the priests performed a magic ritual the purpose of which was to "bind" the light to the sacred stone that it could disappear forever.
Currently, the government of Peru vast territory around Machu Picchu declared a national Park. He is perhaps the most visited tourist attraction not only in Peru, but in the whole South America. During the tourist season, it happens every year more than 10 thousand visitors. To visit Peru and see Machu Picchu is like to come to Egypt and not seeing him pyramids.
Among the tourists visiting this historical monument was and Russian journalist Century Vezensky. Here is how he describes his impressions from Machu Picchu: "it is Striking how the plan of building of city. The architectural ensemble blends area for meetings, sports and military exercises. Above it are the stands, above - barracks, warehouses. On one side of the house for the rulers, for the peasants. All the plots of land on the nearby slopes of the mountains skillfully converted into a terrace for crops -- In the city-Bastion has a water supply and Sewerage, temples and a prison. Preserved stone "Intihuatana". Spanish conquerors destroyed these stones, considering them hell, and Incas used them to monitor bodies. Exactly taken off the corners stone pointed to the place where the Sun was rising, and the place where it was supposed to be at noon, and at night on the faces of stone priests have been monitoring Moon and stars".
American researchers have found that at a time when Egypt was built the pyramids, on the Peruvian coast has already prospered to an advanced civilization, and it had existed for a thousand years earlier than was thought until now. New radiocarbon Dating of cane fiber, found in Caral, in the valley of the Soup, 120 miles North of Lima, has shown that the ancient city was built there in 2600 BC, and this makes it the oldest urban settlement on the territory of the Americas. Fiber were taken woven bags, workers used for transportation of building stone and left inside buildings. And because the reed - annual plant, its age was determined for sure: he grew up in 2627 BC
The findings, reported in the April 2001 issue of the journal Science, suggests that the first is Karelskoi civilization was very much underestimated by archaeologists and anthropologists. The residents of the ancient city used techniques and technology that is at their level to a large extent with the one that was used in Ancient Egypt around the same time. They were able to irrigate fields and built the monumental pyramids; however, never learned how to make pottery.
Who led the research Dr. Jonathan Haas, curator of anthropology at Chicago's field Museum", said that initially the lifetime Karal was attributed to 1600 BC "But our findings, " he says, " show that the vast, complex community of people arose nand the Peruvian coast for many centuries earlier than thought so far".
In Caral dominates the Central area where around a vast urban area with a diameter of more than a mile there are six flat hills of artificial origin. The largest of these, known as the Pyramid Mayor - Main Pyramid has a height of 18 meters and the basis of the size of 120 x 150 meters. All six of the Central highlands were built either once or only in two stages, which is clear evidence of comprehensive planning, centralized decision making and attraction to the construction of large numbers of workers. Stairs, rooms, courtyards, and other architectural elements were built on the tops of the pyramids, and the lateral terraces.
In the near future archaeologists plan to spend new excavations to find out was whether inside hills of the room or the tomb. Some architectural details of buildings of the Central zone indicate a high level and complexity of the then culture of the people. In particular, the opening of three who flooded all squares indicates the existence of a highly organized religion, which envisages conducting of mass public ceremonies. For other Peruvian settlements in which people lived previously 2600 B.C., characterized by a much smaller public square.
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