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So, most of the most discoveries about...

...Black holes

There is nothing to think about: supermassive black hole living in lenticular galaxy NGC 1277 constellation of Perseus, the weird and the largest of the known black holes (BH). She weighs 14-20 billion mass of our Sun, or 4 000 masses of Sagittarius A*, the most massive black hole in our Galaxy, or four times "weightier" the most difficult of authentically known before the black hole of the Universe. It looks especially strange on the background of its home galaxy-lightweight NGC 1277 (which is from the Earth to 220 million light years), equal to the mass of the milky Way ten times. The disproportion is so strong that 11-14% of the mass of galaxies and 56% of the mass of its nucleus falls on this BH. In other words, NGC 1277 is the main part of the kernel. Neither the cause nor the effect of education is so monstrous object is not completely clear: if the black hole grows by absorbing substance of the galaxy, just as its "media" NGC 1277 (the "weight of the pen") received a "feeding" that black beast?



No less mysterious and the most ancient of BH, which is also found in 2012 as x-rays, spent 13.2 billion years to reach Earth from the area of the quasar GB 1428. Kvazar this, presumably, is a huge black hole in the center of the galaxy, which absorbs a substance with enormous speed, along the way, heating it up to such an extent that it manages to emit radiation in the x-ray range.

Самые необычные астрономические открытия 2012 года

Top-down: the most ancient galaxy, the milky Way and the Andromeda Nebula, and the clash, the ancient supernovae and planet blue giant (illustration ESO, ESA, NASA, RoPACS).

The mystery of this black hole in the fact that, according to the standard cosmological model, the Universe is only 13.7 billion years old, which means that found BH already existed at the latest 500 million after the Big Bang. That's what was going to happen during this time: a) reionizatsii gas, after which the only active star formation; b) the life and death of a star or a huge cloud of interstellar gas, which was collapsible black hole in the center GB 1428; C) set its huge mass and warming up falling into the hole of the new substance to enormous temperatures. Several years ago many would say that all this is not possible, the quasar is simply not had enough time to do it! Previously, the oldest quasar could boast only of 12.4 billion years of life, that is the time he had it all "significantly" more. But the facts are stubborn: Kvazar-elder broke out before the completion of the age of reionizatsii. It's all so strange, that in an attempt to explain the phenomenon of one of the Belgian physicist even said: gravity substance of the Universe "compresses" its time (universal theory of relativity), and we just think that from the Beginning there have been a Total of 13.7 billion years. In fact, says Pierre Magain, passed at least 15.4 billion years, which explains the existence of objects like galaxies and quasars, more than 13 billion years.

...Galaxies

And again you hear the phrase "most ancient", this time against the galaxy. According to the adjusted in 2012 data, UDFj-39546284 opened by means of a space telescope "Hubble", reveals to us the way it was all over 380 million years after the Big Bang. First of its age was estimated at 200 million years modest. That is something like: reionizatsii the Universe (from the point of view of the current chronology) and was not going to end, and the first galaxy already have...

Another interesting discovery concerns not deleted from us at tens of billions of light years, and the galaxy, where we are located. The milky Way, it turns out, does not weigh in 0,58 1.5 trillion Solar masses, as was considered, and 1.6 trillion! In the end, the assessment was more than the galaxy, the Andromeda Nebula, the trillion stars against 200-400 billion from us in the milky Way.

By the way, the Andromeda Nebula. In the middle of the year it was first made an accurate assessment of its speed and trajectory. The result: over 4 billion years, it will collide with our Galaxy, after which they will merge in Lacomeda, well, she soon (once after 3-4 billion years) - with a galaxy of a Triangle that might call for life even more giant:



Finally identified a new class of galaxies (which happens not every year). Talking about green galaxies, or "galaxy green beans", "green bean". J2240, the light from which reached us $ 3.7 billion years, was the first in this series, thanks Canadian-France-Hawaii telescope. Subsequent searches yielded another 16 green galaxies. Given the weakness of the current monitoring tools, they, of course, more, although in General phenomenon still rare - one green beans" on 2.2 octillion cubic light years. The reason of their strange colouring still remain a mystery: usually green in galaxies Shine small areas of ionized oxygen in the interstellar medium. But why such oxygen "spread" across the galaxy? What is the source of its ionization? We do not know. The activity SMCD centres green beans" lower than that required for ionization of whole galaxies.

Ah Yes, was found the largest of known galaxies - A2261-BCG (Abell 2261 Brightest Cluster Galaxy), the light from which came to us three billion years. It is not just great (one million light years in diameter stellar disk, which is ten times more than in our Galaxy) and massive, but still curious, that scientists have not yet found its supermassive black hole - and this is a trait that is required for large galaxies. For without gravity SMCD to hold a large number of stars together very hard, and the galaxy will "suhat"...

...Stars

Found the most ancient supernova. Feature SN1000+0216 object exploded 12.1 billion years ago, just over 1.6 billion years after the Big Bang, is that the energy of his flash supplied not banal thermonuclear reaction in the depths, and the collision of particles and antiparticles in the kernel - source, much more efficient. Therefore, the luminosity of a supernova in 10-100 times exceeded the known cases, making it not only the most ancient and most powerful of all registered. To the process went so, the star must be almost free from metals and must weigh between 150 to 250 Sunny. Ancient star that produced a supernova, apparently satisfied these extraordinary parameters, which in itself makes it a unique object.

The most massive star around which it rotates or a planet or brown dwarf was revealed by means of space telescope Subaru. It's blue giant spectral class B9 called Kappa Andromeda, or HD 222439. With his Land share 170 light-years. Planet HD 222439 b, rotating at a considerable distance (55 a. E.) from this light, several unusual: the mass it is between normal planet or brown dwarf (12,8 mass of Jupiter). To emphasize its interim status, astronomers called her "superpatron". The opening is very important, because previously it was thought that the planetary system around hot blue stars, which include Kappa Andromeda, do not form planets, as their powerful ultraviolet radiation causes premature evaporation of the protoplanetary disk. However, the existence of HD 222439 b, coupled with its planetary age quite clearly showed the opposite: such a planetary system can have multiple planets.

The largest star system with planets seriously expanded our understanding of the boundaries of the possible. Four stars of different classes in the area KIC 4862625 make one system, with volunteer community Planethunters.org found in it a planet PH1 weighing from 20 to 40 of the earth (slightly larger than Neptune). When the surface temperature in 524-613 To it hardly habitable, but the important fact: on systems with more than three stars shaping a sustainable planet with a large mass was considered impossible...

There was found the close binary star system - 19b-3-06008, which consists of two red dwarf, rotating around each other for 2 hours and 41 minutes. The distance between them is so small that the crown of both stars have literally about to collide. Earlier theoretical calculations argued that orbits so close to the stars may not be sustainable. However, the new simulation conducted after the discovery 19b-3-06008, showed that the formation of sustainable smertelnoj system is quite likely. And falling stars on each other and if happens, over time, exceeding the life cycle of our Sun.

Самые необычные астрономические открытия 2012 года

Planet in the alpha Centauri system and exoplanets diamond-mantle - long awaited, but no less important discoveries. But the traces of the flow of the liquid at West (!) were a real surprise. (Illustration ESO, NASA / JPL-Caltech.)

...And exoplanets

Oh, there are just a sea of new data. However, self closer to the body: our nearest exoplanet open in 2012, is called the alpha of Centaurus Bb. She just 4,36 light years from us closer star systems is not there. In full accordance with the modeling of two years ago, which dealt with the parameters of possible planets in the alpha Centauri, this is the "super-earths". One problem: she is very hot, because from it to alpha Centauri In only 0.04 and. E. (about 6 million km)that in half a dozen times less than the distance from mercury to the Sun. However, applied for its detection method is sensitive only to the planets, located close to the star. Therefore, the existence of there other "supertall" quite likely.

The smallest exoplanet. They formed a new class of exoplanets - mini-land" (by analogy with "supersense"). Kepler-42 b, C and d, rotating around a star Kepler-42 that in 126 light years from us, became the smallest of all known exoplanets, and Kepler-42 d not only has 0,57 Land mass. Opening ceased to talk about the uniqueness of the Solar system with its four terrestrial planets and smaller mass, while up to Kepler-42 outside the Solar system, not the former found a single one. Sometimes you can hear that "supersample" is much more common type planets than "own land". It is now clear that even with the available means of observation to identify "mini earth" is quite real.

But the most unusual of all open in the past year exoplanets is, apparently, Cancer 55 e revolving around a yellow dwarf 55 Cancer (40,9 light years from Earth). Its surface is believed astronomers coated graphite and diamonds, and the insides may consist mainly of diamonds. And all because in the chemical composition of local stars very little silicon (in abundance in the Sun) and a lot of carbon (which in the Sun a little). Therefore, the main planetaria breed there silicates, as in the earth's mantle, and some form of carbon. And we can talk not only about the diamonds, but also about crystals other, yet unknown to us system. By the way, Cancer 55 f, one of the planets in the habitable zone, - gas giant, which means that it can be a massive aktywny, the surface of which there may be liquid water.

All we have mentioned? Of course not. For example, in one Solar system was justified old theory about the presence of water ice on the poles of mercury : found traces of water flows on Mars, but possibly on the asteroid Vesta; was opened a new satellite of Pluto...

But next year this burst discoveries may not be: our telescopes were used in 2012 to the fullest, and the launch of new machinery space-based at best years. But as you know, quickly only malaherba crescit, so let's wait...
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