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Viewings: 5150Brothers on reason seems to be full... With the space telescope Kepler (Kepler) established: more than 500 millions of planets in our galaxy suitable for life. In connection with what astronomers and joined them mathematics insist that only in the milky way - that is our galaxy have to be thousands and even tens of thousands of advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. And as in the rest of the Universe - there are innumerable.
Skeptics, however, say that nobody but us - at least in the foreseeable space is not. And refer to the famous paradox Fermi Paradox).
Enrico Fermi - American physicist of Italian origin. Nobel laureate. According to legend, in the 1950s, after dinner he listened fellow physicists, who argued that the brothers in mind not uncommon in the Universe. And turn asked: "Well, where are they?". Physics couldn't think of what to say.
The apparent contradiction is huge universe and the lack of contact with other its inhabitants - and then was called the Fermi paradox.
A quarter century later with the addition was made by the Englishman Michael HART. Put it in the sense that if there were thousands of extraterrestrial civilizations, they would have reached us even millions of years ago. Well, at least someone.
To date, none of the other worlds before us is not reached. And the link did not. At least there is no serious scientific evidence relating to contacts. And this, according to the skeptics, the most convincing argument in favor of the fact that their "brothers" - not at all.
"We never came and never will come, said on this occasion Professor Simon Conway Morris, expert on the theory of evolution from Cambridge. - The chances that aliens exist practically zero. And many understand that perfectly. And perceive alien lightly. Purely theoretically.
...and we are one could hear
Alas, skeptics, probably right. And we, truly one of a kind. Recently it explained astronomer Dimitar Sasselov Professor from Harvard (Harvard's Dimitar Sasselov), one of the leaders of the scientific program of the telescope Kepler.
According to rough estimations, explains the scientist, 1 billion years it took stars formed in the young Universe, that of the primary hydrogen and helium "to turn out" enough material to form planets, oxygen, iron, silicon, carbon, oxygen and other heavy elements. About 9 billion years left on formation itself and the creation of conditions suitable for life. It turns out that the Earth, the age of which is determined by approximately 4.5 billion years, fits well into this time frame. And it's quite possible that it did not ahead in its development and did not let forward. In other words, the likelihood is high that our planet is the first on which life emerged. And we, accordingly, the first intelligent beings in the Universe.
Sasselov believes that the time required for the emergence of even the simplest organisms may be comparable with the age of the Universe. Therefore, if somewhere else and got brothers in mind, it is likely that their civilisation is more developed than ours. And the possibilities it has as limited as that of the us. So, could the aliens arrive in the past. And it is naive to expect in the near future. As them to us. There's the answer to the Fermi paradox is the easiest of all proposed before: the universe is too young for that to come to life.
By the WAY
Another five unravel the Fermi paradox
1. The aliens are hiding from us in black holes
Russian researcher Vyacheslav Dokuchaev - Professor, doctor of physical and mathematical Sciences from the Institute for nuclear research, Russian Academy of Sciences suggested that the inside black holes can be ... planet. And on these intelligent life. Article scientist on this topic is called "Is there life inside black holes?" (Is there life inside of black holes?)
Professor proves inside some - especially the giant black hole at a combination of certain conditions occurs area in which there may be an ordinary space and time. And massive bodies - planets. They can rotate around the Central area - the so-called singularity at a very complicated but stable closed orbits. Like around the Sun.
Moreover, the planet in the hole, able to receive the light and warmth of the light rays and energy Central singularity - areas where space and time are infinite. According to Dokuchaev, that may be sufficient for the existence of life.
- Developed civilization can exist inside a large black holes in the nuclei of galaxies, being invisible from outside, " he says.
And as if to reinforce the ideas Dokuchaev a team of U.S. astronomers led by Carl Gebhardt from the University of Texas have found a black hole never known before sizes. A lot of this monstrous object is about 7 billion solar.
"Monster" is located in the centre of a large elliptical galaxies M, which, in turn, is 50 million light years from Earth.
In this black hole is entirely fit our Solar system - surprised his discovery Karl Gebhardt.
And what wonder? Maybe there is some semblance of the Solar system. And brothers in mind that there is not pop out. They know nothing about us, we are about them.
2. They are very, very small
In trying to deal with the Fermi paradox Carlos cotta and Alvaro Morales - mathematics and astrophysics from the Spanish University of Malaga is greatly reduced the number of possible brothers in mind.
Debut idea of the Spaniards and aliens, of course, inhabit the Universe. But before launching reconnaissance probes. Every civilization has its. And some would have to reach us. And time is not reached, then the aliens are just a little.
Scientists created a mathematical model that takes into account the foreseeable dimensions of the Universe, a different number of probes, their life and during your stay with us.
The model gave the result: if the probe is designed for 50 million years, and they stay with us for a million years, that extraterrestrial civilizations anywhere from a hundred to a thousand. But if the intelligence apparatus serve 100 million years, the brothers on reason only 10.
Mathematical logic here is this: the longer serve as probes, the more likely their arrival. And still not arrived (remember the question Fermi "Well, where are they?"). It means that alien civilizations not hundreds, not thousands, but a few - for example, 10 pieces.
3. The aliens are afraid of other aliens
Adrian Kent from the canadian Institute for theoretical physics took it: in the space of little use of resources. Therefore
developed civilization forced them to fight. That is, to fight with the other brothers in mind. The surviving alien race be very careful. And start from sin, in every possible way to hide its existence.
It is not excluded that other intelligent beings even specially masked, not to attract attention.
According to Kent, "the politics of self-promotion in space", which was currently humanity, can have very harmful consequences. You never know will respond to any "space predators". Or colonizers.
In short, the scientist offers to sit quietly and not tweet". And sees the danger even in our probes Voyager, which flew over the boundaries of the Solar system. In them directions how to find us.
- The aggressors rather high level of development do not even have to send a space fleet to capture the Earth - to destroy all mankind, will last three aliens half-educated persons, with their simple laboratory equipment, grimly joked Kent.
By the way, the international astronomical Union shared the concerns of the scientist. And recommends that in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence be limited to passive receiving of signals, avoiding active data.
4. They homebodies
For all time of its existence, the Earthmen and got to another planet. Even to Mars is not yet arrived. And the moon is a satellite of the Earth - have not visited (if there were). Why? Because while just enough - including location - on their home planet. The population is not growing exponentially. And it does not need another house. And this, in turn, does not force to active exploration.
According to some scientists, other civilizations developed in the same way as we do not grow exponentially. And sit at home.
That everything around homebodies, and fearful, and is another explanation of the Fermi paradox.
5. Live far away from each other
Dr. Reginald Smith Institute Bush Franklin (USA) in his scientific work "Broadcasting but not receiving" (broadcast Yourself, and in response not hear anything) complains about low density of distribution of extraterrestrial civilizations in outer space. In other words, too far we are from each other.
The scientist has calculated the average density required to establish contact at least between the two "brothers". Had based "active life" reasonable civilization - the period during which it broadcasts into space. Take into account that strength with distance radio signals falls. And they merge with the background.
Result: if the "active life" to take 1,000 years (we don signal about 100 years), it will turn out that in the milky Way may exist, not knowing about each other and tormented by the Fermi paradox, more than 200 of civilizations.
AND AT THIS TIME
More than half of Russians believe in aliens
56 percent of people in Russia believe that on other planets outside the Solar system is not only life, but also developed civilization. These are the results of a survey conducted by sociologists of "Levada-Center" in 2012.
More than in other aliens believe Housewives (63 percent), Russian residents under 25 years of age and citizens with higher education ( 61%) and businessmen (56 percent).
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