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Русалки и единорогиIn world folklore, there are many stories about polozheniya-polurama, seductive inhabit the depths of the sea. The origins of these legends date back to Ancient Babylon. Why they have survived to this day? Maybe right modern psychologists, claiming that this image represents sexual desire, leading to self-destruction? In our days people tend to deny the existence of mermaids, as well as unicorns. These mythical creatures with the body of a horse or other animal, but always with a single horn, often mentioned in tales and legends. Only by human imagination they entered the folklore?

Warm summer day in 1890 teacher William Monroe was walking along the beach in the Scottish County Caithness. Suddenly the stone, speaking of the sea, he saw the creature, resembling a sitting naked woman. If Monroe did not know that swimming behind the stone is extremely dangerous, then he would not have arisen no doubt that he is watching the woman. But there was something in all this strange, and he began to look. Lower body was under water, but Monroe saw bare arms, rassasavaya long, shiny brown hair. After a few minutes creature slid down from the rock in the sea and disappeared from view.

After much internal vibrations 12 years later Monroe sending a note to the London imes". In the letter he very carefully and dry described this creation. "The head was covered with hair above the specified color (brown), slightly darker on the crown, convex forehead, face, plump, rosy cheeks, blue eyes, mouth and lips natural shape, similar to a human; teeth I could not see because his mouth was closed; the chest and abdomen, hands and fingers of the same size as an adult member of the human race; how it is being used his fingers combing), does not imply the presence of the ear, but about it I'm not sure".

Monroe said that although other credible people claimed to have seen the creature, he did not believe them until I saw it yourself. And seeing convinced that this creature was a mermaid. He expressed the hope that his letter can help confirmation "existence of the phenomenon, still almost not known to naturalists, or reduce the skepticism of those who are always ready to challenge all that is unable to grasp the..."

This is quite logical letter that faith in mermaids was not the prerogative of the sailors, going crazy from boredom and abstinence in the long ocean voyages. In fact, mermaids, like dragons - character almost universal. Mention of them can be found in the folklore of all countries of the world, and if the country has no sea, her home be the river or lake. It seems that, as in the case with the dragon, the emergence of a mermaid is associated with symbolic expression of some internal needs of men.

Unattainable seductress, sexual and sensual, and at the same time, cold and elusive... Its eternal youth and beauty, magic voice and the art of seduction are lured into a trap helpless seafarers. In the interpretation of modern psychologists it is a symbol of mixing of sexual desire and death, desire of a man completely forgotten, even knowing that it means self-destruction.

For legends about mermaids is a series of romantic dreams and aspiration to an ideal - to the woman not available, unlike ordinary mortals. On the very spot where Monroe happened this "amazing story", 've been even more amazing incident. Local legends say that once mermaid gave a certain young man gold, silver and diamonds, collected on a sunken ship. He accepted the gifts, but some jewels gave his girlfriend. But even worse, he met a mermaid promised a number of times, which caused her jealousy and anger. One day she came to his boat and sent her to a nearby cave, saying that there are all ever lost in this Bay treasures. At that moment the young man fell asleep.

When he awoke, he found that chained to a rock gold chains so that they could only go to a pile of diamonds at the entrance to the cave. And though now he had a treasure and a mermaid, carrying out of him than he remained a prisoner. He was trapped due to their own greed.

It is well known that mermaids fiercely resent being cheated or hurt. The source of these ideas about the mermaids are probably the sexual fantasies of men about rebellious creation, is obsessed with the implementation of your wishes. According to some legends, mermaid is a fallen angel, food which is living flesh. Singing and wonderful music she lure sailors to their network. (And here the image is mixed with the siren.) If that happens very rarely, this way of attraction does not work, it relies on the unique smell of her body, which can't resist no man. Having caught and having lulled his victim, tearing it to pieces sharp green teeth.

According brutal legend, mermaids and newts lived in the underwater Kingdom, among the many treasures. Their victims they were taken. Therefore, the seafarers consider the mermaid is a bad omen. It oznacza that saw her soon drown in the sea.

It seems that the roots of legends about mermaids go back to the mighty Babylonian deities associated with the sun and the moon. The God of the sun was the body of a person, his crown was made from fish head, and a robe of fish scales. Gradually replaced the God EA, already polurama-human, and we can suppose that the appearance of myths about newts associated with it. Goddess of the moon Atargatis, polojenia-polaria, was the forerunner of the mermaids. The Babylonians believed that when the sun and moon finish my daily journey through the arch of the sky, they plunge into the sea. And it seemed natural that the gods of the sun, the moon must have the appropriate body for life under water and out. Unusual body these gods - the connection of man and fish, and the ability to dive into the unknown ocean depths is added to them the mystery. Mermaids have inherited these qualities. Maybe a mirror with which they are often portrayed, symbolizes the moon affects the tides and thereby increasing the power of the mermaids. Apparently, the relationship with these gods possessed in pre-Christian times the sole power, increased the faith of the people in legends about mermaids.

Other direct predecessors mermaids - newts in Greek mythology. Tritons could cause calm the storm, and their bodies, as mermaids, consisted of two parts - one belongs to man, the other fish. Although a siren in Greek mythology were Polozheniye-birds that are like mermaids, wonderful singing lured people themselves. When the Greek hero Odysseus tried to pass them, he will plug their ears to the sailors wax, and himself tied to the mast, so as not polatis temptation their singing.

Indian river nymphs had a human form, but much they had in common with mermaids. They skillfully played the lute and, of course, were unusually beautiful and seductive. Fickle and looking for new victories, they never took revenge on the men and sought to bring joy.

With the establishment of Christianity in the legends about mermaids there was a new subject: they were described as being willing to acquire the soul. Christians believed that mermaid can gain soul, only promising to leave the sea and dream to go back there ever, and to settle on the land. This resulted in a mermaid to violent internal conflict, as for the creatures that are the man is only half, this life is impossible.

Known touching and sad story, Dating to the sixth century, the mermaid, daily visiting monk from the Holy brotherhood Ions on a small island near Scotland. She prayed for the soul, and the monk prayed with her, to give her strength to keep the sea. Although mermaid passionately loved monk and really wanted to have a soul, she was not able to betray sea. And, finally, crying bitterly, she left the island forever. They say that shed her tears turned into a pebble, and still gray-green stones on the coast of Ions is called "tears mermaid".

Seals with their smooth body and some features of behavior resembling a human, long associated with the mermaids. Many scientists believe that stories about mermaids based on fleeting impressions of meetings with the seals. In the legends of mermaids seal is usually described as their constant companion. There is a story about how one day the fisherman stunned and dressed seal, and then threw him still alive, back into the sea. Take the animal, mermaid went looking skin. But she was caught comrade that fisherman, and she died too long stay in the air. And then, in gratitude for her courage, the seals were always accompanied by mermaids.

These two creatures - mermaids and sea-nymphs - have much in common, and therefore in many legends it is impossible to understand who you are talking about. They both love to sing and dance and have the gift of prophecy. There are stories about how sea nymphs and mermaids, loving person, for many years lived on the shore. Many believed that each mermaid is the crown, without which it cannot return to the sea, and if the man manages to steal it and hide, he can marry the mermaid; but if she ever find his crown, then immediately disappears from her in waves. Likewise, a man can marry a sea nymph, but to do this he must steal and hide it in the second, "seal", the skin. There are many legends. Below trailexisting ancient legend Scottish highland is one of many. A man fell in love with a beautiful sea nymph, stole the skin and carefully hid. Then they were married, they had children, and lived very happily. But one day one of the sons found hidden skin and showed her mother. Without a second thought, she wore her joyfully rushed into the sea, for ever having left their children.

However, the most popular stories of mermaids were among sailors. Previously skeptical Christopher Columbus noted during his first trip that I saw three frolicking in the sea mermaids away from the coast of French Guiana. During the long months at sea sailors suffered from boredom and sexual dissatisfaction and, perhaps, therefore seen mermaids regularly. Perhaps it is because of sexual fantasies marine mammals, such as graceful seals or even ridiculous dugongs and seals, are starting to seem them beautiful Polozheniye? Who knows?

The famous English traveler Henry Hudson described his meeting with the mermaid as an ordinary case. In his diary for June 15 1625 found the following entry: "One of the team looked over the side and saw a mermaid. Up from the navel to her chest and back were like a woman... very white skin and falling down black hair. When she ducked down, they saw her tail similar to tail brown Dolphin spotted spots, like mackerel". In Russia mermaids were "high pale and sad"; wrote about them and Thailand, and in Scotland. There, in may 1658 at the mouth of the river Dee were seen mermaids, and "Aberdeen almanac" promised travelers that they "will see beautiful flock of mermaids, amazingly beautiful creatures".

As rumors about the mermaids multiplied, began to appear inevitable in such cases of forgery. Usually they are produced, connecting the upper part of a monkey with a fish tail. One of them might have made in the XVII century, was shown at the exhibition of fakes, held by the British Museum in London in 1961. Most of these so-called mermaids were extremely ugly, but caused a constant concern.

In one edition 1717 there is a picture of the supposedly authentic mermaid. Signature: "Like a siren monster caught on the coast of Borneo, in the administrative area of Amboyna. Length of 1.5 meters, built like eel. Lived on the land for 4 days and seven hours in a barrel with water. Periodically published sounds, resembling a mouse's squeak. Proposed molluscs, crabs and sea cancer have not become..."

Mermaids even interested Peter 1. He appealed to the Danish colonial priest Francois Valentina, who wrote on this subject. The latter could add a little, but he described another mermaid from Amboyna. It was seen by more than 50 witnesses, when she played with her friend. The priest was convinced of the veracity of the stories about mermaids. "If ever in the world any stories and credible, " he wrote, - that, in particular, these. The fact that some do not believe in them, means nothing; there will always be people who deny the existence of such cities as Constantinople, Rome, Cairo, just because they didn't have to see them".

Although it was assumed that the mermaid cruel and depraved, the sailors were confident in their tenderness and purity. The desire to catch a mermaid and may be retained for various pastimes was so great that the sailors everywhere seen heroine their erotic dreams. One author once said: "the Fact that human imagination from the ocean depths has created these beautiful, mysterious and dangerous sea goddesses, was, of course, to answer some basic human needs".

Almost everywhere in Europe in the middle ages cathedrals and churches were decorated with carved of stone or wood-carved mermaid. But, since the mid more enlightened nineteenth century, the belief in them is gone. When ships are replaced sailing boats and sea voyages have become considerably shorter, sailors less began to talk about what they were tempted, were deceived or teased siren. However mermaid not been completely forgotten. In 1900, in the North of Scotland landowner Alexander Gunn again met one of them. When he and his dog petals to save stuck in the cleft of a sheep, then, lifting her head, gaze met allocatively on a nearby reef mermaid. She had wavy Golden-red hair, green eyes and curved arc eyebrows. She was extraordinarily good. It is difficult to say who was more astonished - he, mermaid or a dog. But first gave vent to his feelings dog. Whining and his tail between his legs, she rushed back to the farmer. Gunn saw that mermaid scared, but still more angry. Later he said to his friend: "what I see is true. I really met a mermaid".

In 50 years, walking in the same place, two girls came across a mermaid left stranded by the tide. According to the description it resembled the one that met Gann. Soon after, in a completely different part of the world, rather meager list of meetings with the mermaids in the XX century was added another. It happened on 3 January 1957, when the traveler Bishop Eric de floated on his model reconstructed ancient Polynesian raft of Tahiti in Chile. In the book "Tahiti Nui" published two years later, he says that suddenly the log behaved strangely. The sailor began to prove to everyone that he saw a strange creature, delivery of water on deck. Balancing tail, this creature with hair that is similar to the subtlest algae, stopped right in front of him. Touching the uninvited guest, sailor received such a blow that knocked him flat on the deck and the creature disappeared into the waves. As at the hands of the seafarer was shiny fish scales, de Bishop did not doubt the veracity of this story - meeting with the mermaid really happened. In 1961, four years later, tourist firm of the Isle of man has arranged "week of fishing" and offered a prize to the one who will catch the live mermaid in the Irish sea. Immediately there were some reports about the red-haired nymph, frolicking in the waves. Despite this, no one was caught. Irish mermaid was as elusive as their sisters in the past.

Of course, now very few people can truly say that they really believe in the existence of the mermaids. However, mermaid found some pseudoresolvent. Legends about them so common and fascinate that mermaids, like dragons - generation human subconscious, - has turned into a symbol. The same happened with the unicorn.

It is a mythical creature, in principle, could be any animal, but should have only one long horn. As in the case with dragons, the appearance and behavior of the unicorn varies depending on the area, which is composed of a legend. Sometimes it is similar on several animals, or may be some not certain animal - horse, a goat or even a snake. On apace his describe wild animals, loving solitude. It is considered, it is impossible to tame. In China it is a peaceful and affectionate creature that brings good luck. Like other mythical creatures, unicorn symbolizes many phenomena and concepts. The only horn is a symbol of masculinity and the Royal power, in some cases, it is a symbol of purity. With a horn and a female body, unicorn combines elements of both sexes. With his Chinese name "Ki-Lin" means "male-female". The connection in one being opposing male and female indicates that the unicorn was a symbol of reconciliation and other opposites. The idea of harmony between these two opposing forces was an important part of the world view of ancient magicians and alchemists, so in history of magic unicorn plays an important role.

For the first time in the West unicorn was mentioned in the book about India Greek historian Cesium in 398 BC that's part of the description: "In India encountered species of wild Asses the size of a horse and even more. The body is white, the eyes deep blue, the head is dark-red. Every brow horn sticking out, about a meter in length". It seems that Kasi was based on guesses and stories of travelers. In this case, the unicorn is a mixture of a rhinoceros, a kind of antelope and wild ass. The book also States that the horn at the end is pointed at the base he is white, the middle of the black and purple ends. Perhaps Casi just saw the vessel is painted in such a way and made of horn, because the Indian rulers usually drank from such horns. He also wrote that the horn is the perfect antidote and drinking from the horn protected from convulsions and poisoning. Before the beginning of the new time people believed in this property horns. Rich and powerful people were paying crazy money for vessels, allegedly made from the horns of the unicorn.

Pharmacists often said that in their Arsenal treatment drugs have a horn of a unicorn. Sometimes ascribed to him the ability to resurrect from the dead. Even in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, alicorn powder, made from the horn of a unicorn, was included in the list of medicines produced the English Royal physical society. Mad cost this medication is joined in many sayings. Pharmacists explained by high prices that unicorns live in India and powder should be carried out.

In 1641, a French Marquis wrote that passage in London at the exhibition in the tower saw the horn of a unicorn. It was the property of Queen Elizabeth 1, which cost approximately 40 000 pounds sterling. Marquis wanted to authenticate horns. This was to be wrapped in silk and put into the fire. If the horn is true, " said the Marquis, " that silk will not burn. Fortunately, the presence of the guards did not allow the awning to carry out this experiment.

Cleansing properties horns described in the famous medieval legend. Many animals in the twilight gather near the pond. But the water Rawley, and they can't drink. Soon comes the unicorn, he shipped horn into the water, and the poison disappears. In the Christian interpretation of the horn simbolis; and the cross, and water - worldly sins.

Another famous and symbolic medieval legend about how the hunt for the unicorn. Unicorn is a wild creature, the size of the goat. He too agile and fast for a hunter. It can catch only a young virgin, sitting alone in the forest under the tree. Attracted by the aroma of chastity, unicorn is approaching and puts his head on her knees. Virgin gently stroking his horn, while the unicorn was asleep. Then she chopped off the horn and calls for hunters with dogs. Sexual symbolism of this story transparent and often played in erotic culture. However, there is the Christian interpretation of the legend. Virgin - virgin Mary, the unicorn is Christ, and the conch symbolizes the unity of the Father and the Son. Christ sacrificed for the salvation of sinful world.

Some scientists believed that of a unicorn you can display artificially. And in March of 1933 it happened. American biologist Dr. Franklin Having had surgery at the University of Maine day Ayrshire calf. He transplanted in front of embryos horns calf over each other, suggesting that in the process of growth they will unite in one horn, as the unicorn. As a result of this successful experiment appeared monocorn bull. He was not like the medieval description of unicorns that the efforts of the court of writers acquired subtlety and elegance of the beautiful horses. But his behavior was different from the behavior of the normal bulls. Maybe once before people like Franklin Dove, out like a creature possessing properties that distinguish it from the two-horned fellow? And perhaps it is these beings have served as a source for the emergence of the first legends? Or it was much more prosaic and the prototype of the unicorn was ordinary Rhino - Indian or African? And maybe still unicorn, the mystical and magical creature, is the only product of human imagination?
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