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Человек на пути познанияLooking back at the past of mankind, each of us compares himself to earlier generations. And inevitably comes to the conclusion that our contemporaries are much better adapted to existence in a complex world is much more aware of it and have more power than those who lived with, say, a couple of centuries ago.

Conclusive evidence own the evolution of mankind is the evolution of inventions. However, to enjoy them, we could not say if it had not adopted the experience of the previous generations. Moreover, looking at them, we may not know in what they saw themselves.

Three million years ago (and according to some scientists, and even earlier, about 3.4 million years ago) the ancestor of man invented the very first, very primitive tool - and sent all of humanity in an endless journey on the road of progress. Fruits, torn on this path, not just a whole heap of useful inventions, but something's not quite material. Knowledge, experience is that one generation passes to the next, making it easy task to create a new, deeper and more thoroughly to understand the surrounding world and to find their place in it. Each generation became their descendants hardworking collector of information. Each has built a new, higher stage of the ziggurat of General knowledge to the next generation could climb even higher. This means that the history of discovery would be inconceivable without the history of education. The path to any discovery or invention begins where people regularly receives knowledge in the walls of all kinds of educational institutions.

Now, when the industrial era in the history of European civilization was replaced by the era of the information society, knowledge has become the main product of production. It looks like Francis bacon, several hundred years ago, who declared that "knowledge itself is power", has finally been heard and understood.

Information is now above all things, and by itself, in its pure form. This is easy to verify: to repair the hard drive, or even just to save the information it contains is more expensive than to buy a new one. Although no top secrets or innovative technological developments on these drives are not usually found - our contemporaries are willing to pay big money to save the data, valuing first of all their uniqueness.

But the conveyor of information transfer was started long before that - and even long before mankind has entered a historical epoch (usually point it started taking the time the first written monuments). Yes, there is - it happened before the evolution of the higher primates ended with the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens: the first pebble tools, apparently, were created Australopithecus. And therefore, they, who did not even speak, already knew how - probably, by example is to provide knowledge about the production and the use of the articles to their children.

Gradually to that knowledge he was more complex - not only about the development of better tools, but also about the world in General. About animals, about the change of the seasons, on the life of former generations - and something that man cannot see, but want to understand: the deities, spirits, demons, patrons, and the enemies. Just opened for myself the language, mankind began to create a myth. When it happened, it is hard to say - neither linguistic nor historical anthropology, no other science is not able to name even an approximate date. Modern scientists do not know and date of birth first language - and even then, about the same language is spoken. Some argue that all languages share a common ancestor, pamiralai language. Others suggest that inventing a system of speech think independently from each other in different pockets of progress". Often the birth and myth, and the language associated with the middle Paleolithic (300-30 thousand years ago). American anthropologist Michael Korbelic says fossils show that anatomical organs needed to talk, mankind has acquired at least 250 thousand years ago. But immediately puts even more ambitious clarification: maybe all 500 thousand. Anthropological data also indicate that 250 thousand years ago the ancestors of man were observed and brain asymmetry - and it is an indisputable sign language. Somewhere in that time people were engaged and mythmaking.

The children of today, reading the collections of myths different degrees of antiquity in the treatment of writers, perceive them as fairy tales. The fairy tale, of course, can something be taught - but more entertaining. For primitive people myth had a very different meaning. Many centuries and even millennia myth was also a school, and science, and religion, and art, and even primitive entertainment - although the amusements of the ancient person is not too needed, preferring not to separate from pleasant useful. The Maori, the indigenous inhabitants of New Zealand, more recently there was the "house of knowledge" - a kind of school, where the priests and just wise, much worn at the century old men passed youth tribal experience, acquainted them with the legends, traditions and rites. Learning can take several years - and sometimes even had a kind of specialization. In this primitive school existed medical, theological and seaworthy "faculties", which was taught by people who know their work. It is likely that our ancestors had something similar - primitive habit to education on the basis of the myth.

The myth was the only form of knowledge - and only as a means of transmission. All that existed in the ancient world - is a myth, useful plants, animals that can be hunted and that should be avoided, and stone tools. Moreover, the myth narrated and where they all came from, and because we can safely say that the world was nothing but a myth. Any of the inhabitants of the stone age could lose all of their guns and immediately manufacture new - but would not be able to survive without having views of the world. So, it is a myth (and hidden in it information) was the most significant product of this society - and in this sense, our ancient ancestors like us, not so long ago learned to appreciate the knowledge itself.

Not casually about the phenomenon of myth as a universal system, of understanding the world was talking poststructuralist the generation of philosophers, through which civilization in the middle of XX century and stepped into the era of the global celebrations of supervalues information. Study the myths of ancient cultures began in the middle of the last century, but the conversation about the universality of the myth, that myth is a complex language, and with content and form, and the ability to describe any phenomenon, started Roland Barthes, one of the pillars of post-structuralism.

IN THE POWER OF KNOWLEDGE

Progress and knowledge, education and science - the deeper we dive into the fragile substance, bearing the name of human history, the more difficult it is to separate them from each other. Coming out of a common mythological womb, they walked hand in hand, and led the religion is another heir myths. In the first historical societies, formed in the Ancient East, those who had a special attitude to religion - the priests had special access to knowledge. They were the first scientists and the first writers. The first non-anonymous author in history became the Princess Enheduanna, born about 2285 B.C. Daughter Akkadian king Sargon I, she became the high priestess of the goddess of the moon and wrote several hymns.

The priests were the first and the masters of writing systems established to ensure that the knowledge was preserved best in the process of their transfer to the next generations. This suggests that knowledge already accumulated so much that one, even the most intelligent, head to fit they could not. The writing was opened for learning new horizons. For example, if the Sumerian astronomers were unable to record their observations and compare them with the results recorded for several years and even centuries ago, it is unlikely they could perform accurate calculations the duration of the year or the Saros cycle of solar and lunar eclipses.

Knowledge in the Ancient world was not only a science - they were the main resource of power. Probably dreamed of "the enlightened rulers" future generations nostalgic about that time - the era when knowledge was inseparable from the authorities. In any textbook of history of the Ancient world there eloquent information about how the priests kept in subjection huge masses of simple agricultural workers, and sometimes manipulated and rulers. They also were known: knowledge is power.

With incredible power, ancient knowledge, of course, was sacred - and therefore not accessible to everyone. In societies of the stone age, did not know either castes or classes or classes, a media myth was everyone - but in society who have known inequality, the information was in the hands of those who stood on the top of the social pyramid. Under strict protection, knowledge has formed a special mechanisms for the transfer itself. It was the first educational system - process-focused knowledge transfer, as determined his books on pedagogy and education was, how would we say today, elite.

However, there are some nuggets of knowledge woke up down with shining social summit. And those given to him at least a "stripped-down" access instantly appeared in the rays of the authorities. "And now berthed at the scribe, which will take into account the harvest, - said one of dravniekichildren's texts. - Accompanying tax collectors were armed with sticks. They say: let the grain, and it is not. They beat farmer furiously. Scribe - it manages all, and not taxed his work". That scribes do not pay taxes, free from obligatory works and receive a large amount of grain, which is evidenced by the Sumerian clay tablets. We see that the ancient scribes is not treated that way, and preferred officials. Therefore it is no wonder that many parents wanted to send their children to study grammar perhaps, it was the only social Elevator, designed rigidly divided society of the Ancient East. In some cases the ability to read and write could become a key to the freedom - if this key was in the hands of a servant.

Three thousand years before our era school in the Ancient East has acquired features of this educational institution. Economy demanded more strict accounting, and hence a greater number of scribes. It happened in Mesopotamia, and soon the school, originally developed at the families of the scribes, were in every city. They were called "Adobe", which means "house signs" - the clay "sheets", on which the Sumerians wrote their cuneiform documents.

In the beginning of the I Millennium BC in the schools of Mesopotamia started to be applied to the wooden boards, covered with a layer of wax. Once the mentor checked the correctness of the exercise, the student special shovel scraped the top layer of wax poured new, waited until he hardens, and could continue to advance on the path of learning.

Adobe, of course, were more democratic than the temple training of priests, " but the study was paid, and the price is quite high, differing in addition, depending on the authority of a particular faculty. In addition to receiving official price list" parents also regularly did the teacher offerings without them he sometimes even ignored his players.

Gradually applied schools that train recruits for the army of ancient officials, Adobe turned into a true center of science and enlightenment, got a Grand book - so in the II Millennium BC have arisen Nippura library, and in the I Millennium BC - Nineveh. However, for most children Mesopotamia (just as the Ancient East) schooling was not available - a "school of life" for them to become their own family. "Code of king Hammurabi", the most famous monument of ancient literature, States: for the preparation sons to adulthood responsible fathers and that they are obliged to give the children their craft.

A SYNONYM OF FREEDOM

Science for the modern civilization is the main criterion of truth. Not casually modern polls say that the credibility of the scientists is much higher than to the journalists, priests and celebrity together. Science is something that is opposed to other systems of knowledge systems, religions and traditions. They contemptuously called myths - and grew their humanity is trying to get rid of them. But science itself once came from a myth.

Science is a human activity aimed at developing and theoretical systematization of objective knowledge of reality, says the encyclopedia definition. In other words, science is something independent from the practice, knowledge produced for the sake of knowledge itself. So, the mystery of the birth of science has not happened in the Ancient East - even the Egyptians, portraits which can be found in the modern school textbooks in science, were interested in the decision of urgent questions (so, geometry generated agriculture), but because they were satisfied with approximate answers.

The origins of modern scientific knowledge is usually seen on the peaks of Ancient Greek culture. It is in the capable hands of the Greeks comprehensive knowledge about the nature divided into scientific disciplines - mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, - which to the beginning of our era there were about two dozen. Greece had known scientific schools and their fundamental disputes, respect for the thinkers and piety for academic continuity. The only thing that the Greeks were not, are ideas of scientific experiment. Ancient scientists is well able to observe and evaluate: Eratosthenes determined the exact diameter of the Earth, Ptolemy - very precise distance from the earth to the moon. The Greeks did a lot of scientific discoveries, but the habit to check the results by experience they had. Perhaps, the only one who was based on the experimental method was the famous lover of water treatments Archimedes - but he, as we know, it happened by accident.

The Greek system of the world Outlook was also born from mythology. Having gone far enough away from the traditional mythological consciousness, Greeks kept respect for private crowded mythological universe. Zeus, Athena or Gera lived in Ancient Greece (more precisely, of course, in the minds of its inhabitants) side by side with Democritus, Aristotle or Sappho - figures, with which, probably, it would be easy to find a common language. Quite close to the modern turns and Greek understanding of education.

From Ancient Greece came and the word "teacher" is literally translated schoolmaster. However, for the Greeks, it was not at all synonymous with teachers, and meant special servant, appointed to monitor the child. Pedagogy as a science was born because of that sir Francis bacon, and the first pedagogical works belong Peru Czech thinker XVI-XVII centuries Jan Amos Comenius, who is also the author survived till our days classroom system.

Classics pedagogical knowledge - such as Anton Makarenko or Maria Montessori argued that the aim of education should be not only to transfer knowledge, but also forming his personality. That education is the most important task, would have agreed and the ancient Greeks. Alexey Losev, one of the greatest researchers Greek mentality, talked about the fact that the key to the Greek education was the concept of kalokagathia - "good-and-shop" in one, a sort of moral Centaurus, which was supposed to settle in every citizen. Strictly speaking, its growth was the main purpose of the Greek education. The Greeks believed that the split of physical, mental and moral education is not: that all parties to the process was given equal attention, known widely as the fact that in Hellas grammar and arithmetic went hand in hand with gymnastics. Sometimes educational syncretism took an unexpected forms. For example, Plato in his "Laws" insisted that the sense of justice, the main social virtue of the ideal citizen of the policy, the best way is formed in the round dance collective dance.

Today it is considered that universal education is the conquest of the XX century. But the ancient Greeks believed that education in their policies General, and in the V century BC the Athenians were happy that their city-state was not one illiterate person. And yet on education in Greece to say no: the phrase "all men" the Greeks understood only all free men - neither slaves nor women were not considered in their statistics.

Greek women almost all the time spent behind the walls of the female part of the house, and their attempts to participate in public life have been the occasion for laughter men - in any case, the Comedy of Aristophanes ' Women in the national Assembly" had serious success. However, Greek girls free families still studied, but not all, and not as boys. In VII century BC in Greece began to emerge women's school, where teenage girls studied music, dance, singing and poetry, but such schools was very little. The majority of ellinek studied reading and writing, needlework, spinning and weaving under the leadership of mothers and other domestic women. Some studied singing and dancing at churches, devoting themselves to one or other goddesses. The hardest thing to Greece was not even get an education, and to apply it in life. French historian antiqued Pierre Brulee rightly notes that most educated and the most socialized women in the Greek Polis were hetaera.

If the Greeks gave their sons teachers and released them from their families for training, in Rome, in the noble families, the representatives of the younger generation had the opportunity to go through all the stages of learning in the home. Those who could not boast of nobility, gave children in public schools. It was the Romans created familiar to us all three-stage system of primary, secondary and higher education. Roman society was paid a great attention to preservation and reproduction of its social structure - and the Roman system of education worked on it. Access to primary education was open to all, except the servants, even to the children of freed slaves - but for them, as, however, and for all whose family could not boast of considerable social capital, it remained the only one. Until that moment the acquired education will begin to provide the owner of "Golden parachute", was far away. Roman history knows examples diligent pupils, who made a brilliant career in the service of the Roman state or even received the Imperial title, but it is rather the exception than the rule.

The Romans, of course, were very far from the residents of the ancient Mesopotamia - even slavery to them eventually turned into colonialism. However, they considered the knowledge of the attribute of power. Education in Ancient Rome was a social privilege, which - along with access to weapons or material resources - became a guarantee of the superiority of one over the other. However, in contrast to the realities of the Ancient East, knowledge was not synonymous with power, the more power is absolute. Education for inhabitants of the Eternal city has been synonymous with prestige and also gave the opportunity to better understand how the world works. And in this aspect we are not can not find in Romans themselves.

WOE FROM WIT

Suspicious look in possession of a good education and to see them as enemies - this is something sought to teach citizens and ruthless totalitarian machine of the Soviet state. From domestic scenes, in which could be heard sneering replica in the address of "intellectuals in hats", to processes doctors pests and executions military specialists on the eve of the great Patriotic war is the effort was felt everywhere. The educational system itself is down to the smallest humanitarian screw her giant mechanism - was rigidly controlled, and the residual pressure of this control we feel so far. And for those who did everything in their education of the total number, were always ready "philosophical steamer", link or article for parasitism. "Woe from wit" - causation, very relevant to the Soviet reality. As, however, and for other totalitarian state system of fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, Kampuchea under the rule of the Khmer Rouge (although Pol Pot and joined the Communist ideas on Sorbonne student, but, on coming to power, ordered the destruction of all scientists and all educated people), of China during the Cultural revolution.

Victims of repression became teachers that do not fit into the Procrustean bed of totalitarian educational systems. First comes to mind the name of Janusz Korczak - Polish teachers who followed their pupils in the Warsaw ghetto, although admirers of his talent has insisted to hide it on the "Aryan" side. Korczak refused assistance in the ghetto gave all my strength care about children and their education - and in the end went with them to Treblinka, where he graduated from the life in the gas chamber together with the students. The repressive state provoked and sudden death of Volnaya and teacher self citizens Anton Makarenko.

The most famous Martyr of science and a victim of the ideology in whose thirst for knowledge led its owner to a violent death, it is considered Giordano Bruno. Anyway, from school course we remember: in 1600 Bruno went on fire in Rome, Campo dei Fiori, in order to burn alive - in the mouth of the charges, it was called "the most merciful punishment without the shedding of blood" - because defended his point of view: the Sun is a star, and in the Universe there are other suns, and it is infinite. Often Giordano Bruno proclaim the victim medieval churchmen, but this did not correspond to reality. Bruno - worker of the Renaissance, at the age younger than Leonardo and almost century - Michelangelo. And to be burned at the stake, he was sentenced secular court Collegium of the Governor of Rome. However, the charge was formulated without the involvement of the Church and personally Pope Clement VIII. But I myself Giordano was an elected son of the Church, monks and Dominican priest - but the author of the complaint against him was the face is completely secular, the young Venetian nobleman Giovanni Mocenigo, his former student. However, the Catholic Church itself at the trial of Bruno performed quite secular role - as strange as that sounds. Unimaginable in the Middle ages, with their endless discussions about God, the world and their place in each other's role static public authority, the name of which the pass sentences that threaten national stability. However, in the case of Rome, the papacy was the Supreme body of the secular authorities, and the internal and foreign policy revolved around the Vatican hill.

And yet suspicion educated people first became famous not builders totalitarian States of the XX century - and not even the Italians of the epoch of developed Renaissance, during which happened Inquisition. The first were Byzantines - the inhabitants of the Empire, which gained its shining glory on the ruins of the Roman and Greek civilizations. In the court of Constantinople, of course, there were intellectuals, well-known from the ancient writings, engaged in science and literary work, and their education, of course, was recognized as important and prestigious, but only in elite circles, where it was a demand. The rest of the society belonged to the intellectual efforts of religious scholars indifferent, if not hostile. The Byzantine people respected knowledge only from one source - monasteries full of many scientists monks. But the head of the Church - the Patriarch - such unconditional respect could not count. Perhaps due to the fact that usually was too busy political Affairs, and probably because of the undoubted belonging to the environment of higher intellectuals.

In the late-time, not earlier 1107 year, Patriarch headed the Supreme Patriarch school - rather secular educational institution, how the word "secular" was not applicable to the Middle ages, similar to the University. However, existed in the capital of the Empire, and University - Andeducation opened in 842 with the active participation of the famous Byzantine scholar and Archbishop Leo Mathematics. He was restored on the place of an educational institution, Constantinople Athenaeum, otschityvaya its history in 425 year.



This institution, founded in the middle of the fifth century on the crossroads of Europe and Asia, today, is revered as the first University. However, the concept of "University" is invariably associated with higher schools of Western Europe - their age a little less, although also inspires respect.





THE FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION

So when was founded the first European University? Scholars of the middle ages, involved in the early period of the history of higher education in Europe, necessarily adernal us: this question is not quite correct. The first universities in Bologna and Paris, Montpellier and the Oxford not been established. Rather, we should talk about their spontaneous occurrence. And each of them had their own reasons.



The palm should be given to University in Italian Bologna. In 1988, it is a respected institution with fanfare celebrated its 900th anniversary - but you should understand that when it comes to such a respectable age, to set the exact date is not easy. Medieval "Bologna process" began in the second half of XI century, when in the city, and proclaimed a free commune, began to appear in many different schools of science of logic, rhetoric, and finally right. It is believed that from that moment, when the legendary Bologna lawyer, Ornery opened its public lectures, and you should count the history of the University. In reality, however, this story did not begin with the teacher and the students. With strangers, who came to Bologna to study law and created a Corporation to protect themselves from acting here the custom of " reprisals". The custom had a very peculiar ideas of justice: if ever born, for example, Bordeaux owed someone balances and disappeared not paid, that deceived the creditor had the right to require the loan with any other bartosza caught in Bologna. To counter this predatory practices, young men, those thirsting for knowledge, established their Guild - medieval synonym for "legal persons". Universitas was the title of these guilds, like any other. By the beginning of the XIII century they appeared in two Federation: Citymoscow, United Italians, and Ultramontane - for those who came because of the Alps. Federation was invited lecturers, and if the local communities in conflict with the student fraternity, schoolchildren announced a "secession" and settled in some of the nearby towns, gaining a and the best teachers and making the conflict came back. The status of the University (in the usual sense of the word) Bologna student guilds granted in 1217 Pope Honorius III - focusing on the already established Parisian standard educational institution as of the consortium not only students, but also their teachers.

Paris by the end of XII century was the town of scholars. University there hasn't been, but there were numerous schools, which can be tasted any kind of granite of science. Moreover, the thirst for knowledge was forced to leave Paris outside the island Sieve, when not subject to the Paris Bishop territory of the Left Bank, the Rive Gauche (which later became the several hundred years of world student Mecca), Guillaume de Shampo, defeated on the dispute famous medieval rebel Pierre Abelard, founded a new school. Just a few decades later schools already had many, they filled the bridge linking the Rive Gauche with the Sieve, and their "clients" worked the whole infrastructure. Some were handed over to Studiosus housing, while others provided table, the third traded parchment and candles, icon-lamp oil - in other words, half the town was fed through to the academic community. Themselves Paris schoolchildren was considered by the people of the Church - and was under her care, unlike their Bologna colleagues who are forced to take care of their own security. Other Parisians believed schoolboys these daredevils, and for king Philip II, they have become an example of courage and example for knighthood.

"You are armed and protected by armor - blamed the king his Chevalier, " but are afraid to fight, and the schoolboys safely climb into a fight, armed only with a knife and protected only one tonsures". But it was the most durable protection. It provided a privileged status and allowed to go unpunished. Impunity remained even after the abolition of the Church of the protection in the beginning of the year 1200. Moreover - it is from this impunity was born and University of Paris, the future Sorbonne.



Sorbonne began with a scandal and stabbings. In January 1200 archdeacon from Liege, who came to Paris to study, and sent his servant at the wine. The wine has turned sour and expensive, from a-zand what a servant quarreled with the innkeeper, and Studiosus together with his friends made in his institution defeat. In response, the innkeeper and other citizens defeated the house, where quartered merry company, and Liege archdeacon laid down in this fight their wild shaved head. There were other victims. In the conflict interfered with the king himself - and by June issued an Ordinance prohibiting the Parisians to beat the schoolboys under pain of immediate transfer into the hands of the Royal justice. It seems, then wanting to study added.



For the next ten years of the Parisian Corporation of students and teachers got everything that should be in a good University. A masters in teaching graduates and students stood out from the mass of the clergy, organizes lectures and examinations in 1209 documents first recorded name Universitas Magistrorum ("Guild of masters"), in 1211-m on the trafficking of documents on education fell Chancellor Paris Bishop, was in charge of their issuance, and in 1213-m Corporation entitled to assign degrees. And in 1231 "Sorbonne freedom was finally acknowledged papal bull, known informally called the "Magna Carta of the University". The start was given.

During the XIII century on the European map appeared a pleiad of universities: in Salamanca, Montpellier, Padua, Naples, Toulouse... In Europe at that time there were many people willing to learn - and many have devoted to this task life, not pursuing any specific application purposes. On the roads built by the Roman colonizers, roamed the students constantly improve his education and seeking the best teachers.

They are known under the name of vagantov - stray students, who became famous not only for its academic merit, how much fun songs that criticized the Roman Curia, glorifying freedom, wine and love. But first agentami were not students, and wandering the clergy, the priests, did not receive parishes. However, soon cheerful student fraternity became the main component in a motley crowd of vagantov.

The University walls erase the difference. Belonging to a scientific Corporation negates such seemingly ineluctable to medieval society factor as the origin. To leave students meant to withdraw from social life. Not surprisingly, many chose this path.

Scientist in the Middle ages causes respect - but not because he made his fate, as the English say, and not even because in my line of work it seems close to God, but because of the very essence of their studies. Intellectuals, according to some authors medieval written heritage, are those who are engaged in continuous search of a place in the world for everyone.

Today more and more often one can hear: the determination of the place of humanity in the world is a vital task of the modern civilization. That's exactly what should devote academic hours in universities, in scientific laboratories and study rooms Humanities scholars. This is the task of deciding which humanity as close as possible to the knowledge of the mysteries of the Universe. It seems to be travelling on the spiral of history we have yet to return to those positions that were discovered in the middle Ages. But for this education will have to find a completely new status.

Faith SENKEVICH, Mikhail GERSTEIN
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