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Viewings: 4206How rapidly time: I remember that not so long ago we have read, seriously denied the possibility of the existence of planets around normal double stars is because of their instability, caused by the large number of light. They say, Tatooine could arise only in the fevered imagination of science fiction (Hollywood writers). As we now understand, the planets around binary stars have: at least six, and this considering the fact that the characteristics of binary systems hamper their detection is the most popular method.
Top: the system KIC 4862625. In the center (bottom left) is shown a second pair of stars revolving around first. Bottom: looks like the main pair of light from the planet PH1. (Here and below Fig. M. Schwamb et al., Haven Giguiere / Yale.)
However, now on the scene more exotic systems. Volunteers who are fond of astronomy and interacting with customers Planethunters.org could see light variations in the luminosity of the star KIC 4862625, located 5,000 light-years away in the constellation of Cygnus. Naturally, they said that this reminds planet. After checking the data of the pioneers - Kiana of YEK (Kian Jek) from San Francisco and Robert Gagliano (Robert Gagliano) of Cottonwood (Arizona) - professionals from Yale and Oxford universities (with the help of telescopes Keck Observatory in Hawaii showed that the fans are right.
Planet PH1 (which means "first detected community planethunters.org") exists, and it is a gas giant with a radius of 6,18 ± 0,17 earth, with an upper limit of mass in 169 of the earth, or mean HDI of 0.531 jupiterians (more likely that the weight - from 20 to 40 of the earth). In other words, it is hardly larger than Neptune.
Interesting and two star around which it revolves: it is a white dwarf spectral class F7 radius 1,734 ± 0.044 radius of the Sun, and weighing 1,528 ± 0,087 sun, and red dwarf class M radius 0,378 ± 0.023 and weighing 0,408 ± 0,024 sun. PH1 wrapped around them just 138.5 day, that is situated quite close and hot planet: estimated its surface temperature is in the range 524-613 To that is more akin to the Venusian than to earth. That is, even though it is a gas giant, it is highly likely that she has a rocky satellites, but life on them is hardly possible (at least in the form in which we know it).
At the beginning of observations pair of neighboring dual system KIC 4862625 stars simply did not notice, and only in-depth study of the surroundings after opening there the planet showed that only 1 000 A. F. double star is there still a couple of light. Incidentally, 1 000 and. that is, is less than the maximum destruction Sedna from the Sun. Distance alluding to the fact that an unknown pair is part of a system, and it makes KIC 4862625 a system of four stars. And if the first two-star hotel situated very close (the period of reciprocal treatment equal to 20 days), the second pair, it seems, is the opposite: the distance between them is 40. E.
Of course, in the sky of the planet PH1 second pair of stars very Tusla. But at least the effect of stellar winds and storms from neighbouring pairs exactly noticeable on its magnetosphere - and not only on it. Yes, and the distance between the two pairs may change over time: the system of four stars is extremely complex, and we are still poorly represented their dynamics (except for the simple fact that it is immeasurably more sophisticated one that we see in our own system).
Alas, the last two luminaries known crumbs: the objects of this kind, but still nearby, very hard to watch. You can only approximately be argued that the second star pair consists of a sun-like stars with spectral G2V (like the Sun) and a red dwarf spectral class M2V. Nevertheless, the opening is extremely important. It means that even in extremely complicated and hierarchical star systems, with the number of stars more than three, perhaps not only the formation of planets, but their long-term existence - even such massive as gas giants. Astronomers assess this fact as "mysterious", but in fact once, recall, also spoke about the planet in the system of double stars...
The discovery, made by the community Planethunters.org that is certainly a good start in the search for planets around it double and more complex star systems. The thing is, that although the "Kepler" (the materials of which the lovers) and surveys simultaneously 160 000 stars, its automatic analysis tools (software) more or less effective only upon detection of transit in normal cases. Fluctuations luminosity in double, triple and quadruple systems for processing the results of the observation telescope, too complex. That is why Hunters "planets" chose "method of human analysis" shared curves luminosity of stars observed "Kepler".
Of course, professionals cannot solve the problem: to watch it for thousands of systems simultaneously. But Amateur astronomers, in turn tracking curves luminosity, can succeed just by sheer numbers and perseverance.
Their research will be published in the Astrophysical Journal, and its Preprint available here.
Based on the materials of the University of Oxford.
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