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Viewings: 4410The human mind is a wonderful thing. The knowledge, the action, and the process of thinking allows faster processing of large amounts of information. For example, every time your eyes are open, your brain is constantly bombarded by various stimuli. Consciously you can think about one thing, but your brain subconsciously will handle thousands of subconscious ideas.
Unfortunately, our knowledge is not perfect, and there are some errors in judgment, which we tend to do, is known in psychology as cognitive biases. They happen to all, regardless of age, sex, education, intelligence, or any other factors. Some of them are well known, others not, but all are interesting. For sure, each person will find something familiar, and will remember what happened to him something like that.
10. Misleading player
The misconception of a player is a tendency to assume that future likely caused by past events, when in reality it is not. Some features will always remain the same (for example, a coin tosses an eagle or a head). The probability of the eagle is 50 per cent, even if the last 10 times you got tails.
The idea that the probability of change and is a bias, especially when it comes to gambling. For example, people play roulette. The last four times out, for the fifth time must appear red, isn't it? No! The probability of a red of 47.37% (18 red numbers divided by 38 - the total number). This may seem obvious, but such a shift has led to the fact that many players have lost a lot of money, assuming that the probability changed.
Reactivity - this is a tendency among people to act or look differently when they know they are being watched. In the 1920-ies production enterprise Hawthorne Works commissioned a study to make sure that the different levels of light affect productivity.
The results were very impressive: changes in the light of increased productivity in several times! Unfortunately, when the study ended, labour productivity fell to its normal level. And all because the performance was not connected with lighting, and that workers were watching strangers.
This indicates the form of reactivity when people know that watching them, thus they become motivated to change their behaviour, as a rule, the better. Reactivity is a serious problem for researchers, it must be controlled in "the blind" experiments (person participating in the experiment deliberately withholds information, so as not to affect the results).
Pareidolia is the perception of random images or sounds as significant. The clouds in the form of a dinosaur, the image of Jesus from tree branches, or heard a note in the opposite direction are all examples of pareidolia. The common element is the presence of a neutral stimulus, which has no deliberate sense, the sense laid down by the viewer.
Interesting fact: there was developed a special test Rorschach Inkblot to use pareidolia when determining the mental state of people. When passing this test, a person is shown mixed picture, and then asked to describe what he sees. His answers are analyzed and thus reveals the hidden thoughts of the test.
Self-prophecy - is risky behaviour, which achieved the results that confirm their current forecasting. Self-prophecy - a prediction which itself has become a reality. For example, a person believes that he will be bad to learn, so he is making less effort in the research and homework, ultimately, all in fact it turns out bad as it initially predicted.
Another common example is the relationship. If someone believes that its relationship with the other person is doomed to failure, he begins to act differently, emotionally distanced itself. Because of his actions relationship really is coming to an end. This is a powerful tool used "psychics" - they implement certain idea in your brain, and eventually she realized, because you believe it.
Interesting fact: the economic downturns also a self-fulfilling prophecy phenomenon. Due to the recession of the gross domestic product, you may not know that you are in recession until then, until at least 6 months. However, unfortunately, at the first sign of declining GDP, media reports about a possible recession, people start to panic and start a chain of events that actually are the cause of the recession.
6. The halo effect
The halo effect is the tendency "throwing out" positive or negative personality traits to other areas in the perception of them by other people. This shift occurs often when evaluating the results of the employee. For example, the person last three days late for work, his boss noticed it and made a conclusion that he is lazy and doesn't think about his work.
There are many possible reasons for his delay: you can broke his car, or the nanny did not come on time, or traffic jams. The problem is that because of one negative aspect that may be outside the control of the person, think of it as irresponsible employee.
Interesting fact: there is a stereotype based on physical attraction person, when people believe that such individuals have other socially desirable qualities such as happiness, success, intelligence. This becomes a self-prophecy when attractive people get preferential treatment, before they open better opportunities, and they have higher salaries.
5. Bandwagon effect
The herd mentality is a tendency to take the view and follow the behavior of the majority to feel safer and to avoid conflict. In its most common form is the pressure from peers. Herd mentality explains why many quirks become so popular. Clothes, cars, Hobbies, style - all this is a group of people who think it's cool.
Interesting fact: things you absolutely unattractive, and which were never considered as something interesting and popular, now have a great success because of the herd feelings. The following examples: pants - parachutes, bras - cones, etc.
Reactant is the desire to do the opposite, which is born out of the need to counter attempts to restrict freedom of choice. This is a common feature of unruly teenagers, however, any attempt to resist authority in connection with the alleged threat to freedom always leads to reactive resistance. People can be and does not feel the need to follow certain patterns of behaviour, but the fact that they can't act like that makes them want it.
Interesting fact: "reverse psychology" is an attempt to influence people exposed reactive resistance. Tell anyone, especially children, the opposite of what you really want, they will begin to rebel and eventually will do it your way.
3. Hyperbolic discounting
This is the tendency of people to getting smaller, but now than larger, but then. On the subject of decision making, there have been many studies and many factors contribute to the decision-making process. Interestingly, the delay time is the most important factor in the choice of alternatives. Simply put, most people would prefer to receive $ 20 now, not 100 a year.
It usually makes sense to choose a large sum of money at once, rather than less in the future, because a dollar today is worth more than tomorrow. Assume that the interest rate is 9 percent, the rational man is not the difference to get 91,74 the dollar now or $ 100 a year. However, I wonder how much less we are ready to take immediately, and not to wait a year? 100 dollars in a year or 50 right? What about the 40 right? Where the hell?
2. The escalation of obligations
Escalating commitment is a tendency among people when they are actively support the previously unsuccessful initiatives. Among all the decisions taken by people will always be unsuccessful. It is inevitable. Of course, it is logical in this situation, try to change the decision or reverse its effects are reversed. However, sometimes people will not only continue to adhere to bad decisions, but also continue to invest in because they think they have incurred sunk costs.
For example, you invest half of all their savings in the business. After 6 months it becomes obvious that it was a bad idea. It would be logical to cut its further loss, and to withdraw from this business. However, because of sunk costs in the form of your investments, you begin to invest even more, hoping that additional funds will save your date.
1. The placebo effect
The placebo effect is the belief in the healing properties of inefficient substances that produce the desired result. Especially often the placebo effect is observed when taking drugs, when people, taking sugar, reported significant improvements in the course of their disease.
The placebo effect is still a scientific mystery. Presumably, placebo promotes occurrence of "the effect of expectations". Man feels that this tablet is supposed to cure him, he waiting for this and sincerely believes. However, this does not explain how ineffective drugs actually cause the cure.
Interesting fact: the term "placebo" is used when the result is positive when they are missing or harm the term "the " nocebo"".
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