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Загадка Шальтокана наконец разгаданаAccording to historical data, in 1428, when Europe at the height was an hundred years ' war in the other hemisphere appeared state Aztecs, a century later disappeared under the invasion of the Spanish conquistadors. Not so long ago, scientists were able to receive material confirmation of one of the events that preceded the creation of this Empire.

After the death of Teotihuacan and before the advent of the great Aztec state in the valley of Mexico in Central Mexico in the X century came the mighty power of the Toltec capital in Tula-Tolline (current Mexican state of Hidalgo). Two centuries later, due to internal conflicts and the incursions of barbarians-chichimeco Toltec state formation, apparently, were killed. Surviving Toltec gradually mingled with the nomads-chichimecas. This Union of different ethnic communities and different cultural traditions and served as the basis on which emerged later, a huge Aztec Empire.

Under chickagami historians imply the unification of the different tribes of the aliens, not only wild nomads who lived in caves and huts, put in animal skins and hunting for food by hunting and gathering (actual chichimeca)and semi and settled farmers with a certain level of culture. It is among them there were the so-called Aztecs.

The Aztecs, the correct "astici", called themselves mesicemi: from the word "meztli" - the moon or, as claimed by the Spanish chronicler Sahagun, from the words "Mel" - Maga, cactus and "sytle" hare. The history of the Aztecs historians are divided into three phases: 1) a journey that ends with the founding of Tenochtitlan in 1325 or 1345; 2) the strengthening of the forces of the Aztecs controlled by neighbouring States (approximately 1325/1345-1428 years); 3) independence and then conquest, when the Aztecs together with allies conquered a large part of modern Mexico (1428-1519 years).

Regarding the first stage historians have practically no solid facts and all conclusions are based on myths and legends, which recorded many centuries later after the events occurred, and, in addition, controversial content. Controversial historical (documentary) sources, and data of archaeological excavations. More or less, you are sure to say that the Aztecs were off from their ancestral home in the lake Astlan at the beginning of the XII century. They wandered about two hundred years.

One of the best experts on the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica period Russian historian Valery Gulyaev wrote: "they declared proudly to a group of militant chichimeco, the level of their culture Aztecs were more civilized nation". Already in the beginning of his campaign, they, according to sources, knew agriculture and irrigation methods were able to build stone buildings (including temples and sanctuaries), wore clothes made from cloth (fabric made from cactus fibers), were familiar with the ritual ball game and sacred 52-year calendar.

In 1428, when in Europe, there was the hundred years war, in the other hemisphere of the city-state of Tenochtitlan Texcoco and Tlacopan formed a military-political Confederation of three tribes ("Triple League"), which became the Aztec Empire, a century later disappeared under the invasion of the Spanish conquistadors. With armies of Texcoco, waszink in 1428 Aztecs utterly defeated the army of tabanakov and destroyed their capital. Thepanakxi city Tlalpan (Tacuba)ranked in the conflict neutral position, soon went over to the side of the Aztecs and became their ally. The town of Texcoco - third participant ' League" - rules poet and philosopher Nezahualcoyotl.

The population Xaltocan (Xaltocan), the city-state of the people of Otomi gave place to increasing the Aztecs. From the documents of the XVI century, it follows that Xaltocan Otomi left in 1395, after one of military conflicts. In 1435 Xaltocan was inhabited by the Aztecs. Archaeological evidence, on the contrary, indicate that at least part of Otomi remain in this area up until the emergence of the Aztecs.

Anthropologist James Mata-miles (Jaime Mata-M?guez) from the University of Texas with colleagues analyzed samples of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups each person received from 25 remains found during archaeological excavations of buildings Santacana. As reported by the English-speaking foreign media with reference to "American journal of physical anthropology" American Journal of Physical Anthropology), these men died in the period from 1240 to 1521 years, i.e. before and after the Aztec expansion.

It turned out that the inhabitants of the city-state before the conquest of the Aztecs Xaltocan and after him have different haplotypes. Therefore, changes have taken place at the genetic level. The cultural revolution was accompanied by demographic changes. DNA testing indicates that residents of late Xaltocan were not associated with Otomi through the maternal line, but says nothing about inheritance through the male. It is too early even to raise any hypothesis, scientists believe, ahead of them have a huge job.

Regardless of whether Otomi generally dissatisfied with the Aztecs, as only in Mexico appeared Spanish conquistadors, they went over to the side of the new conquerors, who was stronger still. Alas, Aztec ruined that they no longer count on the power of weapons, which can be won only land, but not the hearts of those who lived there...
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