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Почему люди верят в откровенную чушь, и как их переубедитьA great number of people believe in such utter nonsense... however, we probably will not be for them to repeat.

Everyone has a friend who believes in something unimaginable, so there is no need to give examples. Stupidity is so long and live, what they often say, even if I repeat the only purpose - to debunk.

So where does the false information, why are people so it take and how to fight it?

(The article is based on the article of Professor Stephen Lewandowski and his colleagues).

Where does:

1. Rumors and fantasy

People love the sensational stories. They are always happy to relate what can cause a reaction - whether it be joy, disgust or fear. Will suit all that is alive emotional response.

True story, as a rule, are rather boring, with them in the spotlight to be difficult. This is not no secret.

But what is really strange: people tend to believe in the truthfulness of what he read in books. This occurs despite the fact that:

The author does not hide, that story is pure fiction,
there are direct instructions that history contains false information,
the real facts are well known.

Partly this phenomenon can be explained by the fact that when people do something that delivers pleasure to them, their critical thinking is disabled.

2. Policy

Policies will say anything to win an election. We all understand this perfectly, but here is the paradox... Studies show that most people with knowledge of falsity policy for some reason does not prevent to believe in his lies.

3. Media

False information in the media most often appears as a result of the excessive simplification of the material and the need to "keep the balance".

The need for a balanced flow of information - a curious thing, because the reality is not always "balanced". For example, more than 95 percent of climate scientists believe that global warming is the result of greenhouse gas emissions, but the debates do not say this, because the broadcasters should provide a "balanced" approach to the problem.

4. Internet

On the Internet it is possible to tell many good words, but for all that it is, undoubtedly, an inexhaustible source of false information. That's just one fact:

"A study of 50 sites devoted to the issue of weight loss and diets have shown that trust worthy only 3 of them."

Also, people tend to seek out information that confirms their own point of view. And to find this information through the Internet has become much easier, because there you can find everything that you want. Whatever crap people did not believe, he will always find at network associates.

Why people believe false information

For anybody not a secret that our world is imbued with different kind of false information. But if we know that politicians, the media and the Internet regularly lie, why we continue to believe any of this?

The problem is strange how we take (or not take) information on faith. Very few people take the trouble to check out what we hear or read, and only then to decide whether to believe or not. The majority chooses a more easy and short way:

Do I feel that it is right? Or, in other words, embedded whether this new information in the information system, which I have taken as true? You are much easier to believe that a politician involved in a corruption of history, if you belong to opposite political camp.

What is easier to understand, easier to accept on faith. Our consciousness does not like challenges.

Do you trust the source? The more authoritative person, the more power it has, the easier it is to believe. If any reputable doctor will decide on the insidious evil, he can just give bad advice publicly - and the people will believe.

But this does not explain why people continue to believe in absolute nonsense, even after them on the fingers explained that their belief is not consistent with reality.

It turns out that if false information is stuck in my head, it is very difficult out again, even if its falsity irrefutable and unambiguously proved the man agreed.

There are several reasons, and one of them is the mechanism of work of our memory: it's much easier to remember the essence of things than the associated details. Typically this property is quite useful, it allows us to learn. For example, private information that cooked beef easier to digest, summarized in memory to many products become edible after heat treatment".

A side effect of this feature memory is that it is easy POPs up the essence of false information (the moon is made of cheese), and that this information came from an untrusted source (children's tale), remains out of the equation.

8 ways to change the interlocutor

Is it possible to defeat the false information? Lewandowski and his co-authors give a positive answer, qualifies this by adding that it is not easy and offer 8 psychological methods:

1. More than truth

In order to change the mind of man, it is not enough just to tell him that he's wrong (if only it were so easy!) To convince someone, you must provide an alternative explanation - why was there a particular event, for example. Ideally, you should explain the reasons for which appeared refute you a lie.

2. Short and simple

An alternative explanation should not be difficult. The shorter, the more powerful. If you tire of the interlocutor too long and lengthy discussions, it will simply cease to listen to you. A few facts will work much better.

3. Do not repeat the myth

Try to avoid repetition of false information. Remember that people are much easier to remember the essence than the details. The more often you repeat the myth, the deeper he anchors in the head of your interlocutor.

4. What I say is just a myth...

Still, you have to speak the lie to your partner knew what was going on. So prepare it, having informed in advance that you are going to retell the myth.

5. Facts, facts, facts

And after a myth repeat the facts. With each repetition in the minds of the interlocutor of the proof of your innocence will be stronger. The power of repetition known - she builds "the illusion of truth.

6. Attack the source

Where did you get this information? And that these people know? Nothing! Try to arouse in the other person a scepticism towards its source, it may help.

The difficulty here is that people tend to trust those, whose point of view is consistent with their own. So...

7. Stand on the side of the interlocutor

It is important to keep a person on his side, even if you prove him something he doesn't want to hear. Try to maintain balance - it's important to say enough to be convincing, but not too much so as not to alienate the interlocutor.

8. Affect the conversation topics that are important for your partner

Another way to avoid the natural resistance of the person unpleasant facts is to talk about what is important to him. Can indirectly affect the call family, friends, ideals...

Research has shown that the way people are easier to see the discrepancy between their own vision of the situation and conflicting with new information.

The sticky mud

Of course, all these methods have long known and used various professionals who need to win over the public opinion. This is another reason to be aware that they exist. Lewandowski and his colleagues come to the following conclusion:

"Technique refutation of false information, in essence, no different from the technique of planting false information that replaces the originally faithful representation. Understanding that anyone can run any dirty gossip, knowing that dirt clingy... can help in creating a more informed society."
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