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Viewings: 5041In the XIII century BC the Eastern Mediterranean was inhabited by many Nations with highly developed culture and rich history. In the Peloponnese existed Mycenaean civilization that built such a beautiful city like Athens, Mycenae, Pylos, Tiryns. Did not yield in anything to her, and the Minoan civilization, who settled on the island of Crete. During this time she was under the strong influence of Mycenae, but kept its originality, traditions and the rich cultural heritage of previous generations.
In Asia Minor settled Hittite civilization. It was a mighty power. On its military power, it competed with Ancient Egypt. Its fighting units are adequately reflected attacks of the Egyptians and even clashed with them because of the city of Kadesh (Syria). The Hittites occupied all the South-Eastern coast of Asia Minor, the Central land and even the West coast.
Along the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea narrow coastal strip stretches of land Phoenician civilization. Its representatives were skillful seafarers and traders. In this case they were not equal. If not for the southern neighbor of the Ancient Egypt, all the time limit their restless zeal and energy, Phoenicians very quickly would occupy a dominant position in the region.
To the South of Ancient Egypt there are vast land Nubian civilization. Representing its people to the XIII century BC had behind it a very rich history. She was a match for the history of Northern neighbor, famous for its ancient pyramids. Nubian kings stood at the head of a highly developed society, had a strong army and ruled the country with the help of wise laws. This power seemed to be firm and in the future could take "palm" hand weakening of Ancient Egypt.
The life was in full swing on the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean sea. Flourished traders, craftsmen, was held in high esteem scientists people possessing unique knowledge in medicine, astronomy, architecture, linguistics. At a high level was writing. Esteemed priesthood, glorified by numerous gods. Were not deprived of attention and brave warriors, ready in case of danger to defend their fellow citizens.
Everything changed in the second half of the XIII century B.C. As if eternal night fell on blossoming land. Rich cities turned into ruins, disappeared writing, emptied fat meadows with cattle, residents of the plains have changed residence. They began to build settlements on inaccessible cliffs, to grow crops and graze cattle on the mountain plateau, safely hidden from prying eyes.
The reason for such global changes was that the rich and well-fed lands appeared peoples of the sea. Who are they, and whence came they historians, and in our days cannot give a clear answer to this question.
Sea peoples - one of the greatest mysteries of the Ancient World. Know few about them. If to be more exact, almost nothing. This phrase is mentioned in Egyptian historical sources Pharaoh of XX dynasty is Ramesses III (1185-1153 BC). But by the time the Lord came to the throne, the peoples of the sea for the past 40 years burned and destroyed the greatest civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Hittite Kingdom could not withstand the invasion and fell. Destroyed all in the city, destroyed the greatest historic monuments. The culture of ancient people was erased from the face of the earth. On the territory of ancient civilization, new tribes. On a level of development that they were nothing close with the Hittites.
A similar fate befell the land of the Peloponnese. Here also everything is ruined and destroyed. Notable people were killed, commoners were turned into slaves. In the short term was destroyed all intellectual stratum of society. Peoples inhabiting the Peninsula, was thrown hundreds of years back in its cultural development.
Not escaped the sad fate and the island of Crete. Sea peoples profit to its shores by numerous courts. They were warlike, strong and ruthless. The native inhabitants of the island, visiting cosy lowlands, were forced to flee from invaders in the mountains. In our days found 80 villages-shelters, belonging to the period of that ancient and terrible era.
Are these villages in inaccessible mountain areas. Lead to them narrow trails. Walk along this trail, only going out for each other. A small group of men, choose a convenient position, can keep here the attack of the whole army, striking the enemy arrows and throwing heavy stones. Judging from the excavations, people lived in these villages for many years, not daring to go down and rebuild a normal life.
Those who failed to benefit from the protection of the mountains, was cruel fate. Archaeological excavations in the lowlands tell you about the incredible cruelty, which was shown by the peoples of the sea to the inhabitants of the island. Destruction of cities resemble the terrible natural disaster. As if a terrible earthquake struck fragrant earth. Everywhere traces of fires, ash piles of human bones.
It is noteworthy that the invaders are not settled in the conquered lands of the island. Peoples of the sea has appeared regularly on their ships off the coast of Crete, landed, evil, plundering and killing all those who came in their way, and then again got on a ship and sailed. There were they on the sea horizon every time unexpectedly. This forced the indigenous inhabitants of the island for years to live high in the mountains.
The borders of Ancient Egypt peoples of the sea appeared for the first time in 1203 BC It was during the reign of the Pharaoh of XIX dynasty of Merneptah (1212-1202 BC). They came from the Phoenician lands. City Phoenicians fiercely defended, and the invaders decided to try their luck in other lands, which seemed to them less secure.
The ruler of Ancient Egypt was nominated for frontier borders of a powerful army and the sea peoples were not to fight. They walked away and captured the city of Ugarit in Syria. This ancient center of culture has been subjected to barbaric destruction. Died valuable library. It was stored in a huge Royal Palace, occupied the area in a hectare. The Palace itself did not escape this catastrophe. Peoples of the sea turned it into ruins. A sad end for expected and huge city, which by its size was not inferior to Rome and was the largest shopping centre in the Eastern Mediterranean.
It happened barbarism at the end of the XIII century B.C. In the first years of the new century, the carnage continued. Kick invaders took over the Central lands of Anatolia (Asia Minor). Here the sea peoples were held with fire and sword by the surviving rich cities of the Hittite Kingdom. Death and destruction came to the houses of innocent people.
The saturation of the blood of the innocent victims lasted twenty years. Pala and Troy is a city on the Western coast of Asia Minor. Here though the historians have no definite opinion. There is a hypothesis that in this case took place internecine feuds even before the appearance of the sea peoples. The ruins of this ancient city found, but they can't tell archaeologists, what are the circumstances that accompanied their birth. So the reason for the destruction of Troy remains in question.
Ismailov and destroying everything around, the peoples of the sea turned his eyes on land that had not experienced the full horror of their invasion. It was Ancient Egypt. In the early XII century B.C. it already wasn't invincible and mighty power, which was in earlier times. Pretty podrasteryal his power and greatness, the Egyptian Kingdom has entered a period of severe economic and political crisis.
Temporary improvement of all aspects of life came during the reign of Ramses III. He ruled for 32 years, and has made a significant contribution to the strengthening of the powers entrusted to him.
Precisely during his reign and have a second expedition to Egypt peoples of the sea. This time the invaders were countless. Some of them were floating on ships, others moved Hiking order. A huge number of carts drawn by oxen, carried by soldiers. In carts sat their wives and children. Sea peoples went Hiking with their families. It is not known, whether always had such a practice, or something happened for the first time - when the attack on Ancient Egypt.
As already mentioned, the information on peoples of the sea is negligible. History we know about them only from the sources of Ancient Egypt. Basic information is in the form of reliefs with inscriptions and drawings on the wall of the tomb of Ramses III in Medinet-Abu (suburb of the city of Luxor, the left Bank of the Nile). Part of the data contained in the archives of Deir El-Medina on papyrus and ostrakons (the ancient settlement of craftsmen also on the left Bank of the Nile across from Luxor).
Ramesses III stuck out against the enemy powerful land army and Navy, consisting of many ships. A decisive battle took place in 1177 BC on the lands of Phoenicia. In this battle the sea peoples suffered a crushing defeat. Many of them were killed, the survivors were captured. Did not escape eternal slavery and women with children. Was also taken as spoils and the goods and chattels unlucky invaders.
Land expansion was halted, the enemy is utterly broken and destroyed. But there still remained the fleet. Sea peoples moved its Armada to the mouth of the Nile. There she was met by warships of the Egyptians. Won in this hard battle fleet of Ramses III. Defeated the invaders mercilessly killed, the survivors turned into slavery. Thus Pharaoh saved his country from those horror fully suffered from the sea peoples other civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean.
This, in fact, bloody epic and over. Sea peoples have sunk into the darkness of centuries, and any information about them no more. It is known only, that the resolution of Ramses III in the fertile lands of the Eastern Mediterranean settled tribes who called himself the Philistines. Did they representatives of the peoples of the sea, humbly bowed their heads before the winners, or had nothing to this cruel invaders nothing is history is not known.
There is also an assumption that the peoples of the sea was thirsty. It is the ancestor of the Etruscans - the tribes that existed on the Apennine Peninsula before the Romans. They taught great conquerors to build roads, to build the beautiful city and to cater for gladiatorial combat. Again direct evidence pointing to the involvement of Tersenov in terrible atrocities destruction of innocent people.
It is not excluded that by the sea peoples belonged avcri - the so-called residents of Troy. Having suffered defeat in the internecine feuds, they have lost everything: their city was destroyed, dignity humiliated. Warlike tribe could challenge living in luxury and satiety residents of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Gathered around him a "fortune hunters", teucri turned into a ruthless bandits and murderers. Their raids on the city's enemies had enormously due to the constantly adjacent poorest tribes, many of which have lived just outside of highly developed civilizations.
And I must say sekolah - tribe who lived on the island of Sicily. They were not a high cultural level. At the same time they were warlike and brave people. They could well be the peoples of the sea, or at least to join the ruthless invaders. The sources of Ancient Egypt indicate that the tribes were nine. So warlike Sicilians could be one of them.
Has the right to life is also another version. It is based on the structure of military units that existed in that distant epoch of late bronze.
The basis of the battle array ancient armies were chariots. In each of them there were two soldiers. One was witnesses, the second Archer. Wheel of these mobile combat vehicles were made, as a rule, celebretie. This increased their strength and mobility. Besides wheel hubs were established long knives. Bursting at breakneck speed in the ranks of infantry enemy chariots murder soldiers and, ultimately, demoralize enemy, turned it into a shameful flight.
Such combat carts in themselves were expensive, besides, it was necessary to buy horses. To allow such a pleasure could only rich people. Accordingly, in chariots sat elite army. It was a know - members of the upper class.
In addition chariots existed infantry. Cavalry appeared much later, in the XIII and XII centuries BC about her've never heard. However, for the sake of objectivity it should be noted that the car was much better rider. If not for its cost, cavalry would never have become a priority.
Soldiers were recruited from the poorest layers of the population, did not disdain to serve and men from a backward and deprived of the rich cultural heritage of the tribes. The whole audience was easy and cheap weapons. It consisted of a helmet, shield, and the breastplate of wood, covered with skin. The weapon was short spear.
In fact, infantry consisted of civilian people. In case of a threat of an attack them called for military service; in time of peace the most part was dismissed. Given that the war in those days were frequent, mercenaries without work is not sitting. The service gave them money, shelter, food. The salary Marines were able to support their family and less worthy to exist.
In the second half of the XIII century B.C. in the lands of the Eastern Mediterranean was complete idyll. Cultural peoples began to address foreign policy issues are not with arms, but through diplomatic agreements and peace treaties. This testified to spiritual growth of people, about switching them on a higher intellectual level.
As a consequence, wage infantrymen were out of work. They lost a permanent job, and therefore the salary that could support themselves and their families. At the same time, they have military skills, weapons and organizational structure, uniting them in combat units. To cultivate the land, many of the foot soldiers could not, and, by and large, did not want. Peasant work very hard, and not everyone has it on forces and by request.
As a result, some of the mercenaries came up with the idea of a sword and a spear to achieve material well-being. United in fighting units, former Marines turned into peoples of the sea. They started to attack those who recently gave them work and bread. The population is satisfied and rich cities were completely unprepared to resist this new, unexpected enemies.
Small Royal armed detachments were destroyed, broken know. Invaluable cultural creations are put to fire and sword. Their carriers ruthlessly robbed and killed. Blossoming area of the Eastern Mediterranean for centuries fell into the abyss of obscurantism, violence and ignorance. The great ancient civilization ceased to exist. It took hundreds of years to culture and education again blossomed magnificent light on these poor primitive hatred territories.
Sea peoples, creating horrible crimes, have sunk into oblivion. We would now knew nothing about them, if the ancient Egyptians did not find the strength to face this terrible plague that changed the whole way of life that distant time.
The thickness of centuries reliably separates us from those great and terrible events. It gives a modern man to lift the veil of mystery and to learn the truth about the terrible barbarians called the sea peoples. But in any case, mankind should learn lessons from history and a clear understanding that each person has the right to a dignified existence. Others who ignore this rule, paying the price with their lives, dying at the hands of those whom they have deprived of the joys of life on earth and simple human happiness.
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