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Viewings: 5221After almost 40 years of work with technologies that allow you to display manned space vehicles not beyond earth orbit, U.S. space Agency NASA, apparently, decided to invest in deep space.
In particular, NASA plans to establish a space base, located behind the Moon. The idea of creating in this place intermediate base for residing there astronauts, according to media reports, gets quite a lot of support in the American space Agency. Currently, there are many projects and options that relate to this station. According to one of them when you create will be used by the module of the Russian manufacture, which is similar Scientific-power platform - one of the modules for the ISS themselves spare parts to the international space station, as well as the equipment, which remained in the U.S. Shuttle program last.
It is assumed that the official announcement of the new mission of the American space Agency may appear already in the near future. For example, in November, after presidential elections in the USA. Until then, with 100% confidence, one cannot say that appeared in the media information about the construction of the space station beyond the Moon are feasible and really serious. As there is a possibility that this is just a move that will allow to study the reaction of the public to this problem.
It is assumed that similar ISS located near the moon will be able to act as a TRANS-shipment point, which will allow the best way to explore the natural satellite of the Earth asteroids, and in the future to send people to Mars. The source of this information, which can still be attributed to the rumors, is the American edition of the Orlando Sentinel. The authors of the Orlando Sentinel argue that became acquainted with the information on this subject in the report, prepared by the head of NASA Charles Bolden, for the White house.
In the documents allegedly contains information about what the U.S. space Agency plans to build a new space station in the so-called Lagrange point L2 in the system the earth-the Moon. Conditionally new space station is planned to call EML-2 (Earth-Moon Lagrange 2). It will be located at a distance of 61 thousand km from the moon (at the far side of Earth satellite) and at a distance of 446 thousand km. away from our planet.
The Lagrangian point L2 is on the line, which connects the two bodies with masses M1 and M2 at that M1 > M2, and is behind a body with a smaller mass. At this point the gravitational forces acting on a body, to compensate for the effect of centrifugal forces in a rotating reference system. Proceeding from this point L2, which, for example, in the system Sun-Earth is the best place for construction of the orbital space telescopes and observatories. Because the object is located at the point L2 capable long enough to maintain its orientation relative to the Earth and the Sun, to carry out its calibration and screening becomes much easier. But it has a drawback, this point is a little on the earth's shadow (located in the area of penumbra), so it is not completely blocked solar radiation.
At the same time, the Lagrangian point L2, located in the system the earth-the Moon can be used for satellite communication services with objects that are located on the back of the satellite, and also be a convenient place for arrangement of the filling station, which would help in ensuring traffic between the earth and the Moon. Now at this point are already spacecraft American and European space agencies: WMAP, Planck, and the space telescope, Herschel.
If you place a space station in the system of the Earth-Moon, it will be in a more or less static position. That is such station will not rotate relative to our satellite and our planet. This is achieved due to the fact that the gravitational force acting on the station so insignificant mass from the Earth and the moon, are balanced by the centrifugal force. This provision of the station has many advantages.
Space station EML-2 can be assembled from parts of the existing ISS, and also include Russian module and Italian components. Delivery of the required modules can be accomplished with a heavy American booster SLS, the first flight is scheduled for 2017. Probably, by 2019, the rocket could be used to build EML-2. Goods and people to a new manned space station can be sent using the multipurpose spacecraft "Orion". If speaking about the functions of the station, then with the help of the U.S. will be able to go to the moon to explore new robotic mission (according to plans, the new portion of the lunar soil should be on the Earth for the 2022).
After that, the station can provide help to humanity in sending people to Mars. The American edition of the Orlando Sentinel reports that the station located at L2 system the Earth-Moon, is the best option for getting the relevant flight experience with the minimal risk level. These plans NASA partially confirmed in a recent news that the U.S. space Agency announced the conclusion of contracts on creation of solid-fuel boosters for new heavy booster SLS.
Further evidence of these plans could be considered the fact that the experts from the USA have long worked out technologies that enable manned mission to reach the asteroid and explore it. According to the latest information from NASA, the booster SLS will send a man to the asteroid in 2025, and at the red planet in 2030-ies.
In addition, the project EML-2 is quite reminiscent of the Global Exploration Roadmap, which was presented by the International coordinating group space exploration (ISECG) in 2011. ISECG is a consortium created by the Nations that participated in the creation of the ISS. In the provided documents, in particular to contain plans for the continuation of the ISS to 2020, as well as painted space mission the next quarter century, which will become possible in case the orbital station will last another 8 years. In particular, it describes the measures that will need to be implemented, to examine what is closest to Earth asteroids, and to return man to the moon.
It is worth noting that the cost of such large-scale projects as yet unknown. It may be that the money issue during the global financial crisis will become the main problem in the way of an ambitious space programs. It is currently unknown approves whether the US Congress and administration of the President of such plans and spending. The writer Orlando Sentinel could not achieve from NASA and the White house official comments on this.
Also developers who plan to create EML-2, is not just a question of funding. They will face a decent number of technical problems. For example, to develop a more robust protection from radiation, as the Lagrangian point, which is targeting Americans, is outside the radiation belts, which protect our planet and its environment from the harmful effects of streams of high-energy particles. In addition, the spacecraft "Orion" will need to "arm" protection, which would provide him with protection from heat in the Earth's atmosphere. Over time, the Apollo-17", who returned to Earth in 1972, no ship was subjected to similar tests (the rates of return were not the same).
The next step assumes that all technical units should be ready for quite a long flight from the Earth and back. This means that all automatics should work most reliably. The corresponding should be and training of the crew. And the question here is not only psychological training, but primarily technical. Because today's space explorers anything like this and never dreamed of.
However, it is worth noting that up until representatives from NASA not received official confirmation on the project EML-2, it remains just one of possible variants of development of space program of the USA. At the same time, I want to believe that such projects are possible in principle and can be implemented in life. As in this case, the space that is developed, would have grown to epic proportions.
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