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Viewings: 7814Any mission to Mars is accompanied by a lot of difficulties and manned flight to the Red planet until impossible. There are a number of reasons, which we would like to tell.
Despite the fact that such a flight would have cost an incredibly large amount, and modern technologies are not yet at a sufficient level, the day will come when the flight to Mars will become very real.
But what to do with the psychological side of the issue? Whether the person can cope with such a flight? Can our body to adjust to live somewhere on another planet?
The high cost of flights to Mars
The program of flights to the moon in the 1960's and 1970's of cost Americans a total of $ 25 billion, in those times it was an incredible amount. A large part of this money went to the training mission of the ship Apollo-11. This ship with people on Board has successfully made the first landing on the moon. After that, all subsequent missions were already much less expensive.
Flight of the spacecraft to Mars with people on Board will be more expensive, primarily because of the large distances. At the maximum rapprochement of the Earth from the red planet the distance between them is 55,76 million miles, but when Mars is removed from our planet, the distance can be much further - 401 million miles.
Work with highly complex Rover "Curiosity" shortly before the start of the device to Mars. It cost NASA $ 2.5 bn
Moreover, on the way people can trap the virus, which is fully in the open space. Once a person leaves the atmosphere of the Earth, the universe seems to be doing everything possible to kill him. To protect yourself from the dangers, also requires a lot of money.
Why do we need money in space?
First, money is needed for careful planning, development, protection means, fuel. Secondly, it is necessary to foresee every detail, not only in space, but on the Earth, because control of the whole process also needs a lot of money. Moreover, many things that will be discussed below, is closely connected with this very important - money.
Earthly microbes hurt flights to Mars
You wonder why technicians and scientists at work with spaceships and equipment dress like surgeons in operation? There's nothing surprising: and surgeons, and the creators of the spacecraft are doing everything to avoid spreading germs.
No microbe should not get to Mars
It is known that some microorganisms could survive in space, where there's no air, no water and where the temperature can be quite extreme, and solar radiation are incredibly high. Take, for example, Deinococcus radiodurans - hardy bacteria that can withstand very high radiation.
This bacterium survives when the radiation dose of 10 thousand gray. For comparison - lethal dose of radiation to human - 5 gray. To kill bacteria, you need to cook it, and will die, it is not immediately, but only after 25 minutes.
Tenacious bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which the radiation is not for nothing
Deinococcus can be found in the tainted food, domestic wastewater, domestic, drinking, and many other places. It is difficult to imagine what would happen if this bacterium would be on Mars. We still do not know whether there is life on Mars, but now the Rover "Curiosity" will allow us to answer this question.
If life on Mars there is, most likely, it is presented in the form of microbes that have never met with the earthly organisms. Deinococcus is not harmful to man, but it is likely that it could become disastrous for extraterrestrial life.
For this reason, many critics projects manned flight to Mars talk about the ethics and insist that man should not set foot on the Red planet on which one can live a unique form of life.
The engine of the spacecraft for missions to Mars
Currently, all our activities in space by using rocket technology. To leave the Earth and go into space, it is necessary to develop serious speed - 11.2 kilometers per second, that is 40 thousand kilometers per hour. The fastest bullet travels at a speed of no more than 1 kilometers per second.
The only way to get off the ground and out of the gravitational field is to put the object (in this case, the flying spacecraft) on top of the powerful bomb, the explosion of which he will go up.
The fuel, which was necessary in order for the spacecraft space Shuttle" has reached earth orbit, weighed about 500 tons for each missile accelerator. Most of this fuel consisted of ammonium perchlorate.
The Shuttle at the start
Among the missions of the space Shuttle were very few failures, but they were, for example, the disaster of the space Shuttle "Challenger", which killed seven members of crew. Most experts in the field of space technologies are convinced that the missiles are not the most effective means to send spacecraft into space.
In most fantastic works of literature and cinema orbit of the Earth by using other techniques. However, detailed descriptions, how can the ships to fly, you will meet rarely. Probably, it is connected with the fact that we still have little idea about what else image can fly spaceships, if not with missiles.
Prospective spacecraft of the future
Almost all vehicles, including aircraft, moving with the help of internal combustion engines, but it needs fuel. We know nothing about how the ship might leave the ground and fly into space without an explosion at the start. It is to such technologies, we must strive to get to Mars.
The human factor in missions to Mars
Confined spaces, high speed and the inability to step on solid ground can play havoc with any, even very well trained person. Of course, in space, astronauts always busy and they have no time to think about something extraneous. However, quite a long journey to Mars may have a big effect on the psyche.
It is difficult to imagine that the astronauts will be forced to fly for about 8 months to the red planet, then some time spend on it will do all the necessary work and go in the opposite way, which will take 8 months. And all this in a small room, with high overload and under constant stress. Moreover, their colleagues need to see 24 hours a day and not be able to refuse to communicate with them.
For training of astronauts would need a lot of time, but will they be able to withstand the flight psychologically?
Record Valery Polyakov
The longest stay in space in isolation belongs to Valeriy Polyakov, Russian cosmonaut, which is in space, a record amount of time, namely 437,7 days in 1994 and 1995. Of course, he was constantly in touch with mission control center, however, 258 days had to be physically alone.
Staying in orbit for so long, he was able to prove that a long flight in space without harm the human mind is quite possible. However, we cannot say that the Poles have experienced such a long stay in space without any consequences. Psychologists have noticed changes in his emotional state and General mood. After the flight he became gloomy and very quickly irritated.
Valery Polyakov during operation
Also note that because the distance to Mars very impressive, radio signals, traveling at the speed of light will reach the addressee within 20 minutes. Even at the nearest distance to the red planet signal will need 6-7 minutes. Normal living communion with earthlings in this situation can not be.
The most important requirement for space suit is its tightness and pressure, because without it, the body will swell. At the slightest depressurization death would occur within less than 1 minute. Open space is not the kind of environment where we used to walk the Earth with tremendous atmospheric pressure, can survive.
When astronauts go into space, need special costumes. Usually they stay there for a long time. Modern suits are very clumsy, bulky, heavy and awkward, they do not give the freedom of movement.
The first space suits can be seen in the Museum
On the moon by the astronauts realized that the best way to travel in such suits was running skipping. On Mars gravity is two-fifths of the gravity of the Earth and to move on the surface, probably easier than the surface of the moon.
Astronauts could walk on Mars is almost the same as on Earth, only that when moving their body could slightly off the surface of an inch, lifting up. Such is impossible to accurately simulate on our planet. Water, for example, makes the body easier, but restricts the freedom of movement.
Walking on Mars
For excursions to the red planet, we need a close-fitting suit in contrast, towhich is inflated. This suit should weigh less than a kilogram and not 90 pounds, as suits A7L, in which clothed Neil amstrong and buzz Aldrin, the first people to set foot on the moon.
The lack of tight suits is that they can be hard to squeeze some human organs, even if you wear some protective gear.
Space suit the new generation of flexible polymers
Zero gravity is a serious problem for a long flight in space. Our bodies are adapted to life in conditions of strong gravity. For example, if you take the force of gravitation of the Earth for 1, Jupiter this force will be 2,528.
In weightlessness human body is experiencing serious problems, especially is atrophy of the muscles, violations of osteogenesis, that is the loss of bone mass and density.
To avoid this, the astronauts have to strenuously work out in the next 4-5 hours per day, and sports should not include lifting weights, as any dumbbell too will lose weight. Use spring-piston weights and treadmills and stationary bikes, however, and it is of little help.
People in weightlessness
The most well-known example of artificial gravity is the centrifugal force. The spacecraft must be equipped with a massive centrifuge - rotating ring that rotates draws objects to the surface. Such structures were often used in movies, for example, in the movie "Space Odyssey 2001".
Astronaut able to move through the inner surface of the walls of centrifuges, as if this is Paul. Currently, no ship equipped with anything like that, but research continues.
The effect of rotation of a centrifuge - you clings to the walls
The astronauts returned to Earth after 2-month stay in orbit, can't stand on my feet for more than 5 minutes, they move in the chair, or their support during the movement up until their bodies again not adapt to the terrestrial environment.
What will happen to them after they take a flight to Mars, which will last for at least 8 months? The consequences could be disastrous: the person will lose about 1 percent of bone mass each month, and immediately after arrival at the Red planet, will have to carry out some physical actions, to engage in scientific research. Then again 8-month flight.
Another method of creating artificial gravity is magnetism, however magnetic boots glued to the floor, but the body and all its bodies still remain in weightlessness, so atrophy and osteopenia is not going anywhere.
If to speak about the pollution, it is likely Martian organisms can pollute our planet as well as our germs can contaminate Mars. If you are familiar with the work of H.G. wells ' War of the worlds", you will remember that the Martians killed not weapons, man-made, and microbes.
But if we go to Mars, and then go back home, it is likely that we can bring the Martian microbes on the surface of the vehicle, equipment or space-suits. Moreover, the astronauts can bring Martians in their own bodies. Know how to behave like these life forms, you are near them persons.
A strange education in a Martian meteorite, reminiscent of the bacterium. The picture under a microscope
On Mars can live microorganisms, which we need to fear. The simplest forms of life are sometimes the most dangerous. Alien organisms is dangerous first of all the fact that against them we may not have the protection that our immune system is weak.
One Martian microbes can cause serious consequences and destroy everything on the planet. For example, astronauts missions "Apollo 11,12 and 14", which landed on the moon, after flights were in quarantine for 21 days for scientists became convinced that they have not brought any microorganisms.
Orange mineral formations in a Martian meteorite. It is believed that they were formed as a result of activity of the primitive bacteria 3.6 billion years ago
However, the moon has no atmosphere, and on Mars is, although it is not as dense as on our planet, as well as in its structure completely different combinations of gases.
The spacecraft for missions to Mars
At present, the people are on forces to create spaceships that can successfully get to Mars, and which can be managed from the Earth. However, if the ship will be present the person responsible increases many times.
It should be spacious enough the ship with all the amenities to make people feel comfortable during the long months of flight. The ship also need to turn off a lot of features and be safe enough until he couldn't get to the space debris and solar radiation.
Fantastic space ship. To such technologies, we are still far away
If, for example, the ship will be installed rotating centrifuge to create artificial gravity, the size of the ship should be large enough. While modern technology does not allow to build a space ship. It takes a lot of time, make this possible.
Asteroids, comets, meteors
The land faces an incredible number of meteorites, asteroids and comets daily. A patient of celestial bodies is no more grains of sand. But even if a meteorite the size of a car, he will not reach the surface, and will burn up in the atmosphere.
On the moon's atmosphere is not, so its surface is constantly exposed to bombardments of the most different objects. Just look at its rugged cratered surface, to understand this.
Asteroids, meteorites and comets - the usual inhabitants of the cosmos
The atmosphere acts as an incinerator, but in deep space such protection is not, so space vehicles are exposed to serious danger.
In the space between Mars and Earth is nothing but space debris of different sizes, which moves at speeds up to 50 times the speed of a bullet. If the trajectory of the motion of comets and asteroids can be calculated for small debris almost impossible to trace.
To withstand collision, you need to equip the ship strong armor, but it will increase his weight and he will be more difficult to move.
Our atmosphere and the electromagnetic field is what allows us to protect yourself from harmful sun rays and not to be roasted under the scorching sun. Basically ultraviolet rays are tempered by the atmosphere, visible light, which has more wavelength penetrates through the thick layer of the atmosphere and reaches the surface.
In space it is very different. Costumes astronauts equipped with protective filters that stop the harmful rays of the sun. Their helmets have a protective screens from the sun, without which they could go blind in a matter of seconds.
The destructive power of the Sun
The missions "Apollo" ultraviolet radiation was restrained using aluminum modules, but during the flight to the moon and back astronauts complained of unexpected and sudden flash of bright blue and white lights. No light was visible inside or outside of the ship and not distract the team to perform all the necessary responsibilities, and not causing pain.
After the astronauts follow-up missions have also started to complain about such things, scientists have become more detail to explore these flashes of light and realized that they are called "cosmic rays", although to call them rays would be wrong.
Beautiful microcosm for the views of the artist
This is not rays, and subatomic particles, mostly single protons, which are moving at a speed close to the speed of light. They penetrate inside of the ship and technically make the material microscopic holes, however, damage to a ship that does not work, because the hole is too small.
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