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Viewings: 4589Water - the cradle of life. Its properties are striking biologists and biophysicists, and their study is rapidly developing in our time. But for the average person consumption of water is urgently needed. Therefore, in the study of planets and small bodies in the Solar system, scientists are primarily interested in: there is very necessary for life stuff?
When the first automatic interplanetary station Galileo (Galileo) in 1995 plunged into huge raging atmosphere of Jupiter, the gas giant, there were found only traces of water! Strikingly in the atmosphere was very little water...
For direct studies of Jupiter, the largest planet in the environment of the Sun, in June 2005, began the development of a new project "Juno" (Juno), the aims of which was planned and the search for water. It lasted longer than the scheduled time and required increased funding: in December 2008 it was stated that given the inflation and transfer startup on August 2011, the total budget of the mission will exceed one billion dollars.
Real run "Juno" was executed on 5 August 2011, it is the second project in the framework of the programme New boundary" (NewFrontiers). The purpose of the mission - exit the station at polar orbit of Jupiter in 2016, the study of its magnetic field, the study of the nuclei of giant and the atmosphere of the planet. Will be determined by the content of water and ammonia and map jupiterians winds. Juno" is the first device on solar batteries, designed to work at a great distance from the Sun.
The solar panels on the "Juno" unique, they replace the previously used in the far mission radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Before reaching Jupiter, Juno" will receive only four percent of the sunlight that shone with the apparatus in the Earth, because it will operate at a distance of five and. that is, from the Sun!
So, Juno" uses the Shamrock symmetrical solar panels. Each petal length of 2.7 metres in width and 8.9 meters in length. One of them is the other, its width is 2,091 meters, it is necessary to folding panels at the start. The total area of the panels is 60 square meters. Orbiting Earth, they would have produced about 15 kW of energy. Jupiter capacity will be equal 486 watt, and eventually it will decline to 420 watt, but that should be enough for the successful operation of the devices. Also on "Juno" are two lithium-ion battery designed to supply the equipment during passage in the shadows, their charge accounts for periods, when the panels generate surplus energy.
The journey of this unique device has just started - now he is in 540 million kilometers from the Earth and move closer to her for making the gravitational maneuvers in 2013. The earth will drop "Juno" to Jupiter, giving it greater speed in the right direction. This is the essence of the gravitational maneuvers.
In 2016, the machine will reach goals and dive into the atmosphere of the planet-giants, at the end of the mission will burn when braking, but will carry out their research at the stage dive into the atmosphere. And the first task "Juno" is to determine the amount of water on Jupiter.
As is known, not only the Earth, but even Mars and the Moon is very rich in water. In the theory of formation of the planets was determined that in the gas giants of water should be much more. Solar radiation in theory should expel water from the protoplanetary cloud, the stronger the closer to the sun. I believe that Jupiter was originally formed even farther from the Sun than it is now, it implies the presence of large amounts of water, traces of which have to be detected in the atmosphere.
Scientific instruments on Board "Juno" will see and register the Aurora planet, remotely examine solid planetary the kernel will study and Carteret powerful magnetic field of Jupiter, will measure the depth of the atmosphere, the amount of water and ammonia.
To measure the magnetic field mission is equipped with a flux-gate magnetometer and a device for registration of station position relative to the magnetic field of the planet. These tools need to map the magnetic field and study the dynamics of processes in the magnetosphere, as well as determining the three-dimensional structure of the magnetosphere on the poles of Jupiter.
The structure of the atmosphere explores microwave radiometer, recording radiation with a wavelength of 1.3-50 centimeters that consists of six individual radiometers. It will work in the depths of the atmosphere of Jupiter. An important task is to study the depth of the atmospheric circulation.
The internal structure of the planet will be studied by measuring the gravitational field, the method of mapping the distribution of mass on Jupiter. The surface of Jupiter will be carefully photographed tri-color video camera, only to "Juno", JunoCam (JCM). And by tradition, the device will take on Jupiter gifts.
First, it is "memorial plaque" Galileo Galilei. The plaque was presented to the Italian space Agency, its size is 7.1 5.1 centimeters, weight - six grams. On the plate depicts the Galilei and an inscription made in January 1610, when he first observed objects, which later became known as the Galilean satellites.
In addition, to Jupiter fly three aluminium "passenger" - figurines LEGO - Galileo and the couple Roman gods Jupiter and his wife Juno. In Roman mythology Jupiter concealed their antics in a blanket of clouds, and Juno with mount Olympus gazed out over the clouds and could see. So Juno holding a magnifying glass - she could see what was happening. Well, the Thunderer Jupiter armed with lightning anger. Smile of mankind accompanies the movement "Juno".
In General, the statement "As you schooner call, so it will float!" - very esteemed in Astronautics. The mission under the name of the legendary resourceful Ulysses was very successful, and the evil militant Mars often manifested itself as inhospitable host...
So, the mystery of the Galileo mission on a small amount of water on Jupiter will be rejudged. "We send "Juno" in there to try to understand and explain the origin and evolution of Jupiter, figure out how much water is there, what it looks like from the inside, what kind of atmosphere?", summarized Fran Bagenal the University of Colorado at the last meeting of the American astronomical society in anchorage (USA).
Need to revise the existing model of the formation of the Solar system? This cardinal question is very important, and the mission "Juno" will help to formulate the answer. We wish "Juno" good luck, great success of its creators and designers.
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