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Вулканы не дают Венере спокойно спатьFor six years, between 2006 and 2012, the spacecraft "Venus-Express" (Venus Express ESA) found large changes in the content of sulfur dioxide in an extremely turbulent atmosphere of this planet. These variations in the chemical composition can have only one very intriguing explanation - on Venus from time to time occur volcanic eruptions.

This is truly hellish planet shining pure diamond on the background of dark-blue sky of the Earth. The morning and the evening star is it called such a beautiful name and expected that the sister of the Earth may be inhabited. Alas, space research clearly show the nature of Venus has undergone a monstrous transformation, and now the planet is a heated to 750AT (477 °C), that is apparently lifeless world in which greenhouse effect reached its climax. The Venusian atmosphere opened M.V.Lomonosov June 6, 1761 coverage Venus to the Sun, and qualified it as "noble"!

The anticipation was justified, indeed, it is extremely massive - 105 times more in comparison with the earth's atmosphere, and, by the way, the pressure at the surface of Venus is 93 ATM! The composition of the atmosphere is that 96 percent carbon dioxide and only 4 percent of nitrogen, and the height is 250 kilometers! Loose, like haze, layered clouds of drops of sulfuric acid and chemical compounds of sulfur and chlorine envelop the planet on the heights of 30 to 60 kilometers, they with mad speed (about 100 m/s) rushing from East to West, for four days around Venus, pierce their monstrous lightning, complementing this infernal picture. Under the action of solar radiation you receive the ozone layer at altitudes of 100 kilometers.

The whole atmosphere of Venus is a solid strongest hurricane, whose causes are still unknown to researchers. The data of chemical composition of the atmosphere indicate that sulphur is contained in the known chemical compounds - sulphur dioxide. This connection should disappear quickly due to the absorption of the surface of the planet. Now this is not happening, and it means that there is a replenishment of the atmosphere with sulfur dioxide. This led to the hypothesis of volcanic activity on Venus, and now it is successfully confirmed by the data of the last years.

The thick atmosphere of Venus contains a million times more sulfur dioxide than the Earth. On our planet sulfur dioxide was the result of volcanic activity. Apparently, the results of the SPACECRAFT Venus Express has convinced scientists in the correctness of a similar interpretation.

A large portion of sulphur dioxide on Venus is hidden below the thick cloud top layer of the planet, because this gas is easily destroyed by solar radiation. Moreover, this means that any sulphur dioxide found in the upper atmosphere of Venus above the cloud layer, should be provided by the ascent of the lower layers of the atmosphere. Dr. Emmanuel mark, lead author of the work, said: "If we see that the presence of sulfur dioxide increases in the upper atmosphere, we know that the rise of the substance carried out recently, because its molecules will destroy the sunlight for several days".

Venus is covered with hundreds of volcanoes, but if they are and how much is still not clear. To see them eruption impossible because of the clouds. However, the topography of the planet was quite accurately determined by the method of radar. Therefore, experts define the possibility of volcanism on Venus within the geological scale: recently, the last few hundred thousand years to millions of years of history.

The results of the mission of Venus Express showed that in 2006, in the beginning, a significant increase in the average sulphur dioxide in the upper atmosphere of Venus. Up to the present time a decrease in values - they were about ten times lower than today.

A similar decline was observed during the mission pioneer Venus (NASA), which worked, revolving around a planet from 1978 to 1992. Then it manifestation explained occurred before the volcanic eruption, the concentration of which has already been reduced and gradually fell during the mission, pioneer Venus.

"The eruption of the volcano could act as a piston, raising sulfur dioxide to the upper levels, but especially of rotation of a planet's atmosphere, which we do not yet fully understand, could stir gas that will get the same result" adds Dr. Jean-Loup Berto, scientific leader in the mission of Venus Express, where they were received final results.

Indeed, the rapid superprestige of the atmosphere of Venus during four days (compared with 243 days for the treatment of a planet around of an axis of rotation) can be mixed with sulfur dioxide, making it difficult to distinguish volcanic sources of this gas. The team of Dr. Mark is also discussing the possibility of multiple eruptions, as an alternative to single events volcanism.

"The trend of a sharp increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide and subsequent decline seen earlier in the mission pioneer Venus, repeated in these last mission of Venus Express. Perhaps for the first time revealed the variability occurring every ten years-scale circulation of the atmosphere. The phenomenon was much more complex than we had imagined, perhaps ever imagined" comments Dr. mark.

"Using the hints, actually traces of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere, we want to discover the way that works Venus, to point us to a Smoking gun active volcanism" adds Hakan Svedhem, coordinator of the project Venus Express ESA.

So, as you can see, you can volcanoes on secre-twins Land active so far. Unfortunately, to see them eruption in all its glory is not possible until then, while on Venus will not be started Rover like the ones found on Mars. He would probably be able to photograph it's fascinating to watch, and to understand that it throws planet on its territory...
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