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Капитолийская волчица оказалась подделкойThe symbol of Rome, bronze sculpture, called Lupa Capitolina, i.e. the Capitoline wolf - has been cast not ancient Etruscans, as I thought before, and the unknown master of the middle Ages. It could be a copy of an early and not come down to us of the original, but, nevertheless, it still is a work of art in later eras.

Back in 1997, restorer Anna Maria Carruba (Anna Maria Carruba) drew attention to the fact that the Capitoline wolf (but not a pair of twins) was not made by the ancient technique and technology of a later period. It is known that the ancient Greeks and Etruscans not mastered the art of casting great works of bronze in one form: they did separate parts and then welding them. Method when the statue was cast at once and entirely in Europe mastered to the era of the Carolingians (VIII-X centuries).

As for the figures of two infants Romulus and Remus had earlier found that they added the Italian sculptures and artist Antonio del Pollaiolo (Antonio Pollaiuolo, 1432-1498). In 1499 the engraving on wood, which was accompanied by the publication of popular in the Middle ages collector "Miracles castle Roman" (Mirabilia Urbis Romae), Capitol wolf depicted already known twins.

A few years ago Voice" drew a parallel between the conclusions of experts on the Dating statements authors "New chronology", and appealed to last for comments.

Still, critics continued to be tormented by doubts. The similarity with the Etruscan works of art indicated in the eighteenth century German Antiques, art historian and one of the founders of modern scientific archaeology Johann Joachim Winkelmann (Johann Joachim Winckelmann). Despite the concerns of some of his colleagues that this is an example of Etruscan art, the authority of Winckelmann was up to something solid that "default" was recognized to "true" exactly his point of view.

To end doubts about the time of manufacture "Wolf", was given permission to produce mass spectrometry and radiocarbon analysis showed 95.4%that the sculpture was made in the XI-XII centuries. You are no longer the old joke Mikhail Zhvanetsky performed by Arkady Raikin that, well, "cheat"by placing inside "medieval knight our filings".

And last Saturday Lucho Calcagnie (Lucio Calcagnile), responsible for the radiocarbon Dating of the statue in the laboratory of the University of Salento, has publicly stated that the Capitoline she-wolf was cast in 1021-1153 years.

Briefly recall the myth of the Foundation of Rome. The losers brothers Romulus and Remus were saved and suckled by the she-wolf. Shelter unusual family served as the Fig tree, which became, along with the wolf symbol of Rome, and woodpecker and the lapwing cared about babies.

The image of the wolf from bronze, displayed in the Eternal city, mentioned by the ancient authors. However, Pliny the Elder wrote that it is installed on the Roman forum and Cicero claimed that on Capitol hill.

And when in the beginning of IX century on the Western slope of the Palatine hill was found figurine of some animal, somewhat like a dog, subsequently, with the light hand is not only one of Winkelman, began to associate with the Capitoline wolf. In addition, Cicero mentioned that in gilded sculpture of a wolf hit by lightning, and found the sculptures were damaged paw.

So, the famous German archaeologist Friedrich Matz (Friedrich Matz, 1890-1974) dated sculpture 480 - 470, BC it is Sometimes attributed to the master by the name of Volcanic activity from the city of Veii. Thus was born the Capitoline she-wolf or Lupa Capitolina, which in 1471 by order of Pope Sixtus IV was carried into the Palace Conservatory.

To be called a Roman she-wolf or Lupa Romana she became when to power in Italy came Benito Mussolini. She embodied the aspiration of the fascist regime to revive the Roman Empire. In 1960, the image of the sculpture was used on posters and the emblem held in Rome Olympic games.
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