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Галлюцинации. Что это за феномен?What is this phenomenon?Sometimes people claim to have seen "something", which actually does not exist. They can position "spirits" or some strange creatures. Sometimes small children say they saw "Oh, my, so terrible, that the horror!". Sometimes it's a fantasy or dream, sometimes illusion.

There is a difference between illusion and hallucination. If a person illusion, then it means that there is something, misleading his sight or sense. You can verify this because other people see it. For example, the Mirage is a kind of illusion. The most important thing is that there's some reason that man thinks he sees what he sees.

But if a person hallucination, nothing like that here, no! There is no external stimulus to view or feelings. The only stimulus is in the person, the stimulus is his own imagination.

Hallucinations are of different types, depending on the affected organs. The most frequent auditory hallucinations. Man imagines that he hears voices, shouts, groans, laughing, crying, music, shooting! The second most common type - visual hallucinations. It seems to people that they see missing at the moment people, they can position animals, whole picture. Often they "see" frightening them creepy and heavenly objects, phenomena. Sometimes people have hallucinations associated with the taste or smell, even with the sense of touch!

Cause of hallucinations diverse. The most common anxiety person. If someone is too emotional state, for example, very angry or frightened, he may experience hallucinations.

In other words, those who usually is in a state of great agitation, fear, joy or presentiment of something that can hallucinate. Alcohol and drugs are the main providers" hallucinations, and the characteristic of species. So, cocaine causes hallucinations in which it seems that the skin crawl insects.

One of the darkest recesses in the great "lock" literature horror allocated to the theme of burial alive. The most terrible thing here is that to fall into a coma and alive to go to his grave each can.
Edgar Allan PoE, master of grotesque, felt a painful interest burial alive. The hero of one of the darkest of his novels "the fall of the house of Usher", met his death in the arms of "the walking dead man". Madelin, sister of the owner of the house, dies after a painful illness, and her body before the funeral leave in a basement crypt of this polurazrushevshayasya mansion. One night, in the midst of the storm, bottom heard the terrible sound of cracking and breaking boards coffin, echoey clanks heavy iron chain... and now, on the stairs, heard somebody's footsteps. "I say unto you, that it -- it's already behind that door!" - he cried Roderick, Escher, beside themselves with terror. The door slowly, squeaky, open, and...

"On the threshold stood a lady Madelin Escher, her tall figure was clothed in a shroud. White cloth was getting dark spots of blood, and the haggard her body showed signs of a violent struggle. A few moments she stood staggering, in the doorway, then stepped forward into the attack, the death throes fell at his brother, and began to fall to the floor, pulling second lifeless corpse".

What was the cause of death Roderick, living woman emerging from the crypt, vengeful if the spirit that has left the body, killed by suffocation, or, perhaps, hallucination, born of his remorse and fear? The author, in the best traditions "black" literature, provides the reader to search for the answer to this question.

Public interest in the problem of burial alive reflected in widespread English belief "moaning about the nun". There are many different options, but the plot is basically unchanged: all who have broken the vow of chastity, live immure in the monastery wall, and the Ghost of her, leaving unhallowed "graves", embarks on an endless journey, vainly trying to find a safe haven. Meanwhile it is known that after the decree of Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries, many of them former inhabitants really found their last shelter within the walls of the nearby houses, of course, after natural death. Not whether there lies one of the possible sources of the legend? What psychological consequences of such interpretation, told contemporary Scottish writer Gordon William.

Many years ago he had a chance to visit the County of Devon, where he learned about the strange folk belief: the locals somehow argue that there is nothing worse than to die... in the middle of November! The reasons for this are more than strange beliefs Williams told the local innkeeper: it turns out, "once upon a time" the dead man had to bring a horse to the cemetery which was 50 miles from the village, through the swamp. In the beginning of winter carts often stuck in deep snow, and then they were simply left in place so that in a few months to return to them and to complete the journey to the churchyard. Thus the body is not protected by the prayer of the priest, left alone with the nature, and, therefore, any demon could absolutely freely in him to settle.

William asked, when was the last time the dead were left for the winter among the marshes, and received a very typical response: "that was Long ago, when my great-grandfather". Later in Pinkcom Museum of the writer found the documents confirming a story innkeeper with only one specification: the last dead wintered in the swamps...three centuries ago! The villagers, "inspired" terrible legend, continue "see" ghosts of the dead and to this day, bypassing the swamp for miles in winter and in summer.

In 1915, London "evening Post" published a story by writer Arthur Machine about the vision, seen during the First world war. Three officers defeated near Mons of the British army, retreating from the battlefield, on both sides suddenly saw dense rows of horsemen, armed... bows and swords. "That we were accompanied by some cavalry division, we did not doubt even for a moment, " said one of them. But detachment, sent on reconnaissance, and came back with nothing; they could not find anything similar..."

Maybe it was the English unit, utterly broke on the spot in 1415 the French at Agincourt? In this case, their presence could only mean one thing: the powers of heaven is clearly on the side of the British army.

Soon after the publication in the newspaper letters began to arrive with new evidence that corroborated the story Machine; however, now the majority of the witnesses told about the whole ngel" battalions, one by one coming down from heaven. Machen made a statement that the whole story from beginning to end-solid fiction, but it was too late - about "angels Machina" already talked the whole country. Almost every second participant of the battle had their own version of the events; and were ready to swear that saw myself how the squad winged inhabitants of heaven came down from heaven and began to March through the fire and smoke to the Kaiser redoubts. To this story "angels" it is necessary to add only one very peculiar PostScript: Friedrich Gastwirt, then chief of German intelligence, in his memoirs, published in 1930, argued that the Kaiser aircraft, equipped with projectors, in order to convince the stubborn British people that the Lord God sends against them "troops"specially projected at the clouds ngel" fotodest!

Our amazing willingness to believe in the stories always prevented serious study. Eminent scientists with great concern avoid richly flavored superstitions "field of miracles", nurtured so many fabulous literary themes. And today representatives of the official science in the majority are convinced: if any vision's not immediately be exposed as fiction, means, we deal with the symptom or mental disorder, or chemical poisoning percipient (this person, directly perceiving vision). But you only have to approach the study of psychological phenomena seriously and impartially, as can also find a lot of amazing cases, to ignore which is impossible.

One hundred years ago, was made the first attempt to hold the field of scientific analysis. The society for psychical research conducted in Britain, the so-called "the Census of hallucinations". The issue suggested 17 thousands of respondents was as follows: "did you at least once, while awake, to see, hear, touch, or still somehow feel a stranger, living or inanimate, presence, to explain that natural causes was obviously impossible?"

More than 40% answered this question in the affirmative. The experts called among people as possible to describe what he saw, and then analyze the data. The original purpose of "Census" was to study the phenomenon of telepathy; at the very question is clearly apparent interest in the form of communication through the transmission of thought and shaped (mental images) messages over a distance. A significant number of detected cases really got into this category; but there were also evidence of a completely different sort: when a man is the image of the stranger, or, as it turns out, the deceased, to explain it telepathic influence is impossible.

During the first two years ' life" in the house of the Ghost of a little otlichalisI and other people; then somehow faded and became to be less. Besides miss Morton, a Ghost had seen a few people, and all the descriptions match. And only the father of the girl phantom reason not observed. That's what tells miss Morton in the letter addressed to the Society: "I was walking through the garden. Suddenly appeared in front of me figure: she was moving down the Avenue to the house and passed through the hall into the living room. I went after him. She took their favorite position behind the sofa. Into the room came a father, and I whispered to him that she is here. Father, not seeing a Ghost, went to the window and stood right next to a Ghost. The woman walked around behind him and, as always, is dissolved in the doorway facing the garden..."

That night the girl and her sister again saw the figure: "this time she appeared at the window of the living room and stood there for about ten minutes". Trying to unravel the mystery of this phenomenon, miss Morton handed over the stairs silk thread. The Ghost easily passed through it.

Every time, when she was approaching figure, she was slipping. In response to attempts girls to talk, of mysterious guest stopped, raised his head, clearly wanting to answer, and... did not utter a sound.
If the image "lady in black", compiled according to the descriptions miss Morton, will seem to someone suspicious is typical for all British ghosts of the Victorian era, there is the case simpler; there was it in 2002 and was described by the psychologist Andrew Mac-Kenzi in the anthology "Ghosts and visions".
Miss Dean arrived at the weekend to nurse her daughter, Mrs mills. Widow Dean lived with her son in Ohio, Babysitting knew nothing about her family.

The first night, when her visitor had already gone to bed, someone zazerkal outside door handle. Opening the door, she saw a pretty girl, dressed in a nightgown. "Hello, who are you?" "asked Mrs. Dean.
- I - Lottie! And this is my room!
"Then go! - invited the woman.

But the girl smiled and... vanished into thin air. "Ironically, this meeting did I not scared, " said Mrs. Dean. - I immediately fell asleep and slept soundly all night". The next morning she asked the mistress, who is Lottie. "My daughter Charlotte. She died a few years ago, is alarmed said mills. - But how do youknow about it? I am one called her Lottie..." When Dean told the mistress of the night visit, she showed her pictures of the deceased's daughter, and the guest is immediately recognized in the night visitors. A year later, Mackenzie, upon hearing this story, wanted to deal with it, but, alas, Mrs mills moved left no address.

But what would the ratio had no shadowy figure to late Charlotte mills, for Mrs. Dean at that moment the girl was absolutely real, living person.

Someone will say that the whole scene is just played out in the minds of women. However, it is easier to assume that Mrs. Dean, like thousands of other witnesses, whose testimonies have been carefully studied and tested by the experts, were faced with the phenomenon, to explain that science is not yet able. It's obviously time to finally recognize the ghosts that word's not hiding in reality.

Source: "Interesting newspaper. Incredible" №10, 2012
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