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Исчезнувший материк АтлантидаFor over 2000 years the imagination of poets, scientists, archeologists, geologists, occultists and fascinates travelers Atlantis - miraculously disappeared mainland. In ancient times, reaching its peak, highly developed island civilization suddenly was destroyed by a terrible natural disaster. The mention of it made those who believed in the existence of Atlantis, explore virtually every corner of the Earth in search of traces of this once great civilization.

Most archaeologists believe that the legend about Atlantis's just a legend, an allegorical story that has nothing to do with real history. However, occultists on this account his own point of view: for many of them Atlantis - the personification lost the cradle of spirituality (such as Mu/Lemuria) or even the concept of another dimension. What is Atlantis, and why the legend about it causes such a heated debate? Is there some truth in the legend?

For the first time Atlantis is mentioned in two short conversations ancient Greek philosopher Plato - "timey" and "Crete" (359-347, BC). Presumably, Plato borrowed the story of the mainland from the story of his distant relative is known to the Athens of the legislator and the lyrics salt. That, in turn, heard the legend, when he was visiting the city of SAIs that on the West Bank of the Nile Delta, at the court of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amasis (569-525, BC). In SAIs salt visited the temple of Neith(*), where he held talks with the man, who told him about Atlantis. According to Minister of religion, it was a huge island, more than Libya(**) and Asia combined. It existed 9,000 years ago and was located on the other side gerkulesovyh pillars (Gibraltar), in the Atlantic ocean. Atlantis was managed by the Union of kings, leading the race from Poseidon - God of the sea and earthquakes. In honor of the Atlas, the eldest son of Poseidon, were named the island and which bathed its ocean.

The Atlantean Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean sea, Egypt in the South and Italy in the North. Trying to expand the Empire on earth Mediterranean, Atlanta, met with resistance from the Europeans, the United forces that led Athens - in those days already fairly large city-state, controlled by the military elite. Warriors with contempt for the riches, preferring an ascetic life. Although on the eve of the battle allies betrayed the Athenians, leaving one on one with the enemy troops Atlanteans were routed. Soon there was a devastating earthquake, followed by a giant flood, and according to Plato, the continent of Atlantis was sunk within one fearsome day and one night".

Information about the location of Atlantis for the Strait of Gibraltar and her death is in Dialogues of Plato just a few lines, but the political system and way of life on the island, the author described in more detail. Originally Atlantis was an idyllic place with rich natural resources; it was full of forests, gardens, wild animals (including elephants) and numerous mines. Each king on the island had his own city. But the greatest impression was made the capital, which was managed by the heirs of the Atlas. This ancient city was defended by three covered with metal, located in concentric rings of walls, every of which was surrounded by a moat. The outer wall was covered with bronze, next - tin, and internal shone red of oricalcia(***)" - unknown metal. Atlanta dug a huge underground channel under the ditches, linking the Central part of the city with the sea, and had hewed harbour in the external stone walls. In the Central citadel was situated the main temple - the temple of Poseidon, which was three times the Pantheon in Athens. The exterior was completely covered with silver (with the exception of the roof - it was a gilded). Inside the vault was tiled with ivory and decorated with gold, silver and orichalcum. The same unknown metal were covered walls, columns and the floor of the temple. The room was decorated with numerous Golden statues, including a statue of Neptune in a chariot drawn by six winged horses. It was a statue of colossal dimensions - the head of God was touching the roof, which was situated at a height of 381 ft.

Other ancient sources mention of a vanished continent, followed by Plato. In them gave a colorful description of Atlantis, the existence of which in the 'ancient times people believed truly. In the IV century B.C. on the settlement of the Atlanteans mentioned disciple of Aristotle Theophrastus, the ancient Greek philosopher from the island of Lesbos. Unfortunately, most of his works were lost. About Atlantis in comments to the dialogues of Plato wrote ancient Greek author of the V century Proclus. Arguing that the mainland really existed, he noted that Atlantis "for many years dominated over all the Islands of the Atlantic sea" and that Grantor is the first author who gave comments to the dialogues of Plato in the IV century BC, has visited the city of SAIs in Egypt where he saw the Golden column that hieroglyphic script was written history of Atlantis. In the work of the Roman writer II century A.D. Eliana Claudius "On the nature of animals", describing a huge island in the Atlantic ocean, Atlantis is referred to as the famous legend of the Phoenicians (and later of the Carthaginians Cadiz) old town on the southwest coast of Spain.

For many centuries the legend about Atlantis lay forgotten and only in the XIX century, interest was revived. The search of the legendary island continued at the beginning of 1882, after the publication of the American Congressman and writer Ignatius Donnelly "Atlantis: the world before the flood". Don Neli took the story of Plato about Atlantis as a historical fact, deciding that the lost continent was the ancestral home of all known ancient civilizations. Around the same time the interest of the disappeared continents, such as Atlantis and Lemuria, began to show Helena Blavatsky, a co - founder of the Theosophical society and the head of the gaining momentum of the occult movement. Several times she mentions Atlantis in my first job, "Unmasked ISIS" (1877), and the basis for fundamental labour Blavatsky secret doctrine (1888), it became "the Book of Dzyan" - mystic treatise, supposedly written in Atlantis. In the Secret doctrine Blavatsky describes in detail Atlantis and its inhabitants, mentions advanced technologies, ancient flying machines, the giants and supernatural forces. Some rather vague descriptions of Atlantis followed that lost continent existed on another, but rather a spiritual level, and thus fundamentally different from physical continent, how it was presented Donnelly. Her view had some impact on the theory of atlantaga.

In the beginning of XX century the world-famous psychic Edgar Case gave a series of lectures, including about Atlantis. He believed that Atlantis was a highly developed civilization, and Atlanta had ships and aircraft operated by a mysterious energy of the crystal (in the opinion of the Case echoes Blavatsky). Case study predicted that part of Atlantis will be discovered in 1968 or 1969 in the area Bimini, near the Bahamas.

In September 1968, on the North Bimini was discovered the plot, neatly lined with limestone blocks of length of half a mile, now known as the Bimini road. Many researchers believe that it is the remains of the disappeared of Atlantis.

In 1980, Agin Sinn from the Geological service of the USA has published the results of research of underwater stone buildings in Bimini. Testing has shown that the units were formed under the influence of the forces of nature, and through analysis of radioactive carbon have dated buried in stones and shells has allowed to conclude that kept within blocks of the so-called road between 1200 and 300 BC, i.e. much later than expected time of existence of Atlantis.

Many researchers, relying on the words of the ancient historians, was looking for Atlantis in the middle of the Atlantic ocean, believing that the Mid-Atlantic ridge (long chain of underwater volcanoes in the middle of the ocean), and there are the remains of the disappeared mainland. However, geologists, referring to modern data on the drifting continents, exclude the possibility of existence in the Atlantic such. But the movement of tectonic plates - this is only a hypothesis, so until it is proven, those who believe that the lost continent existed in the Atlantic, will continue the search. Like Presided Donnelly, who wrote about Atlantis in the 80-ies of the XIX century, modern researchers believe that if the island was in the middle of the Atlantic ocean, it is quite likely the remains are the Azores are a group of nine Islands in the midst of a series of seamounts in the Atlantic; some include in this list and the island of Madeira, the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Today, however, there is no evidence of the existence of the extinct ancient civilization in this area.

Almost every year the pages of Newspapers betreut headlines on the subject "Atlantis found!" A variety of hypotheses about the location of Atlantis truly astonishing. Long time was considered that the indirect impact on Plato had Minoan civilization that existed in the late bronze age in Crete and, presumably, was destroyed by an earthquake unprecedented power that occurred close to the island of Thira. However, as we know, the Minoan civilization existed after the earthquake on the Dash. Possible locations of Atlantics consider also Europe and the Mediterranean, in particular Ireland, England, Finland, island of Helgoland in the North-Western coast of Germany, to Andalucia in southern Spain, island Spartel in the Strait of Gibraltar, Sardinia, Malta, city Gelika in Greece, the territory in the Mediterranean between Cyprus and Syria, Israel, Troy in northwestern Turkey and Tantalic. There are assumptions that the ancient civilization was located in other parts of the world: in the Black sea, in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bolivia, in French Polynesia, on the Caribbean Islands and the Antarctic.

The emergence of various theories explains the skeptical attitude of researchers to the description of Plato's Atlantis. In their opinion, the ancient Greek author used a political allegory: he stated that Athens is able to act against the decadent and insatiable Empire of Atlantis, thus attempting to exalt Athens as a state. That is why the legend about Atlantis known exclusively with the words of Plato. So, salt was never in Egypt, and have not heard a legend from a priest in the SAIs? And put Plato Atlantis for Gerkulesovy pillars, because behind them were opened vast ocean, which was identified by the ancient Greeks with all the unknown. Indeed, to Plato in ancient literature Atlantis was not mentioned. But in the "history" of the Greek historian Herodotus (484 - 425 BC) there is evidence that salt adopted a number of laws Egyptian Pharaoh Amasis. This means that salt was still in Egypt at that time, which Plato writes. Of course, the ancient Greek philosopher tries to exalt Athens: proving the truth of his political and philosophical ideas, he points to the inability of a rich and powerful state to win impeccably organized and well-managed society. Therefore, in order to give credibility to his story, Plato could attract the events of the recent past, such as monstrous destruction, to find information about which the philosopher did not make special work.

In the summer of 426 BC in Greece just North of Athens was one of the strongest earthquakes in the history of the ancient world. A tsunami caused by a powerful earthquake devastated the coast, destroying part of the island Atalante. In 373 BC (for 15 years before Plato wrote his dialogues devastating earthquake tsunami destroyed and flooded a rich Greek island Gelika that on the southern coast of the Corinthian Gulf. Gelika was known as the city of Poseidon, the second after the Delphi settlement, where grew sacred forest of this merciless God of the sea and earthquakes. The relationship between earthquakes and the Plato destruction of Atlantis indisputable, and therefore, most of the text was written under the influence of the recent events that have occurred at the home of the philosopher. Then the question arises: if Plato to confirm his words used information about disasters in modern Greece, why did he attributed the traditions of Egyptian priests? Undoubtedly, his contemporaries were to guess that we are talking about the earthquake that occurred in the district of Athens or Corinth, after all this happened in just a decade and a half before writing dialogues. It seems that some of the information, which Plato used when creating conversations that was unknown to his contemporaries.

Among the latest theories is curious hypothesis Dr. Rainer of Coena of Wuppertal University, Germany, launched in 2004, Considering made from satellite images of the South-Western tip of Spain, he discovered fragments of buildings, exactly corresponding described in Plato. The photographs of the area of salt marshes Charisma de Hinojos, near Cadiz, see the shapes of buildings rectangular shape. They probably once surrounded the facility in the form of concentric rings, the remains of which can also be seen on the photo. Dr. Kuen believes that the construction of the rectangular form can be ruins described in Plato silver temple of Poseidon, as well as the Golden temple, dedicated to Poseidon, Kleeto. Presumably, in the period between 800 and 500 BC happened here destructive power of floods that confirms the version of doctor of Coena not about the island and the continental location of Atlantis. His point of view he explains that when translating legends Greeks confused the Egyptian word "coast" with the word "island"; and to test his theory, doctor Kuen hopes in the near future to start excavations in this area. I wonder will the search for Atlantis in the area gerkulesovyh pillars finally to solve this riddle?
* Nate - in Egyptian mythology the goddess of heaven, who made the world and gave birth to the sun. Was considered also the patroness of the Queens, the goddess of war and hunting. Nate was linked to the mortuary cult, its image with outstretched wings were placed on the lid of the sarcophagus.

** Libya is in ancient Greek name for North Africa, adjacent to the Mediterranean sea (to the West of the Nile Delta). Asia the ancient Greeks called the territory of modern Asia Minor.

*** The majority of scientists believe that it is an alloy of copper with zinc.

B. Haughton
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