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Забытый ШумерFor this once heavily populated fertile land were innumerable army of the Persians of Cyrus, and Darius, pilili Greeks army of Alexander the great, was riding squads of soldiers of the prophet Muhammad and the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire for centuries roamed Bedouin tribes, not knowing what lies at their feet.

Forgotten Sumer

Over the years, adding to the century and Millennium. Rare Europeans saw on a desert plain only strange hills, lit the merciless sun. But, apparently, it is time to learn about completely forgotten past. In 1869, the French archeologist Jules Oppert found cuneiform inscriptions of the old Kingdom, the ruler of which Sargon - called " king of Sumer and Akkad, and offered to call the Sumerians, the people who possessed Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, long before the appearance of Assyria and Babylon.

At that time nobody knew the word "Sumer". The fact of its existence was long forgotten. Mentioned in the Bible, the land of Shinar remained without explanation. And the land rested no one knows the masterpieces of worship and admiration of ancient people and the objects of their life.

Good for archaeologists was the fourth expedition to the excavation of one of the oldest cities of Sumer - Nippur - in 1889, which was directed by Professor of the University of Pennsylvania (USA) H. Hilprecht. Studying stepped ziggurat (temple tower), he found a library containing more than 20 thousand cuneiform tablets. This mass of documents became a revelation to those who have studied them. To explore them all at once in such volume it is impossible. However, even the transfer of a part of them gave an unprecedented set of monuments of Sumerian literature, religious works and commercial documents.

Under the protection of the higher forces

Difficulties in the work of researchers enough. Cholera, malaria and dust storms. The whole area was covered by the war. Rebellious, wild and unruly tribes were bloody feudal strife: discord, enmity with irregular troops and authorities of the Ottoman Empire. There were constant threats of attacks of nomads, attempts to reach weapons expedition and theft. There were cases of shooting and robbery of the forwarding of the property.

That though somehow to protect their lives, the archaeologists had to intimidate superstitious population of its "magic force". The launch of rockets and fireworks terribly frightened not only women and children, who had fled with the crazy cries to seek asylum, but also men. Scientists have unearthed a giant human head from alabaster, plunged the local population in horror and confusion. What not, but as they say, God is merciful archaeologists. Great success was achieved P. Botha and R. Koldewey, O. Layard and L. Woolley. Found an ancient Nineveh, the Bastion and the capital of the mighty Assyrian kings mentioned in the Bible, and Babylon in the days of the greatest glory forgotten all of Sumer was an obscure village. Only when Hammurabi in the XVIII century B.C. Babylon was booming on the whole Ancient world. It is not clear where it came from cuneiform tablets of the time of Sargon the Ancient. Find bilingual - the inscription in two languages, which allowed the reading its ancient texts on previously unknown language. Raking centuries-old garbage and dirt shoveled thousands of cubic meters of ground forces of several hundreds of diggers, archaeologists found a number of forgotten history.

From the darkness of centuries

About once a sensational excavations of the city of Ur, the birthplace of the biblical Abraham, our newspaper wrote in the spring of 2011 in the article "Sumerian Chronicles". It was about his fabulous wealth of forgotten kings, in comparison with which the famous Tutankhamen is just a poor man. However, the archaeologists came across and completely plundered burial, in which the marauders did not spare even the king's remains.

There were found the ruins of the ancient palaces and temples, gigantic statues of winged bulls and lions with a human head and marvelous bas-reliefs of gods, sphinxes and winged creatures. Battle scenes sieges and battles depicted on the cars, made with great skill and rich ornamentation.
Why not just preserved ancient walls: painting soldiers, from head to foot clad in armor, with a pointed helmets on their heads and bows; the image of women that is begging for mercy, and tearing his hair out of grief; the figures of people with styled hair and curled whiskers in richly decorated clothes, decorated not lost color embroidery and brushes; bricks with scenes of names unknown kings and one with the name of the mythical Bunk-Sina (about 3750 years BC).

Find terracotta figures of bearded gods with weapons and other devices in the hands, toys in the form of horses and riders, elephants and monkeys, sheep, dogs and birds. Were found spears and daggers, coins and necklaces, bracelets and earrings, rings and fasteners, brass clips and relics from agate, turquoise, malachite and lapis lazuli, dishes and cups written on them by ancient legends, often covered with images of terrible demons, and more.

Unique information

Found and decrypted Sumerian texts allowed to look in the antediluvian history and learn about the origin of Homo sapiens, the arrival from the planet Nibiru aliens (the Nephilim), and their life on Earth. To read the documents referred to how they passed the knowledge to people, taught them and crafts created by the ancient civilization. There is mention of two visits to Earth Anu - ruler Nibiru, dynasty antediluvian rulers and the first Tsar of all of Sumer after the flood Mesanepada.

Striking a high level of knowledge of the Sumerians, especially in astronomy, mathematics and metallurgy. Only copper in them there were 23 species. The death of civilization many knowledge was lost, but the legacy of the Sumerians present in our lives so far. We know the 12 zodiac signs and 12 months a year, use the watch with 60 seconds and minutes, and you divide the circumference of 360 degrees.

Sumerian texts allowed us to understand many unexplained place in the biblical stories and actions of her characters. Later Zecharia Sitchin has written a history of lost kingdoms and civilizations, and Alan Alford was the chronology of gods and people. Was excavated the temple at Nippur and religious center of Sumer, and it became clear that an important role in the life of the people in the past played the cult of the God Bela, as evidenced by the community ruins and many cuneiform literature.
Temple library pointed to the existence of a large class of priests and clergymen.

Helped... Sumerian priest

However, once information to scientists received a mysterious way. Hilprecht at the end of the expedition finished the book about excavations and their scientific results and had to give it to the publisher for the next day. In it he mentioned two fragments Agatha found during the works. Archaeologist could not read Sumerian inscriptions on them. He was sitting in his office until late at night, trying to decipher the text and give the book a finished look.

Doze off (if it was a dream and not something else in an altered state of consciousness), the scientist saw next to a man in the Sumerian priestly garments. Surprised archaeologist stood up, but not from the chair, and on the stone steps, for which reason he was. Its not even surprised that the priest said to him in English: "follow me! I will help you." They passed along the street past few massive buildings and entered the dimly lit hall next, which seemed even more. "Where are we?" - asked Hilprecht. "In Nippur, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. We are in the temple of Bel, the father of the gods", " the priest said.
During the excavations the archaeologists could not find the treasure - room, which must be at the temple, and the scientist asked about her his companion. That led him to a small room in the far corner of the temple. There in a wooden chest was a few pieces of agate, including Hilprecht learned two fragments, which he was not able to decrypt.

The priest explained that this part of the cylinder, donated to the Church Kurigalzu, ruler of Kassimov. From it wanted to make ear ornaments for the statue of God. By sawing one piece split. Inscriptions on the fragments that the scientist could not read, were parts of the same text. At the request of the archaeologist priest read him this title.
Coming to himself (or Wake up), Hilprecht wrote down everything that told him the priest. Deciphering inscriptions relating to a very distant past, was recognized by other scientists flawless. Precision turned and indicated the Sumerian priest of the location of treasure in the Church, soon found by archaeologists. But thousands of unread cuneiform tablets still waiting to be explored, and no one knows what information they will bring to humanity.
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