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Viewings: 9081The polar regions of the Earth - the harshest places on our planet.
For centuries people have tried price of life and health to get out and explore the Northern and southern polar circle.
So what have we learned about the two opposite poles of the Earth?
1. Where is North and South pole 4 pole
Actually there are 4 types of the North pole from the point of view of science:
North magnetic pole is a point on the earth's surface, which is directed magnetic compasses
North geographical pole is located directly above the geographical axis of the Earth
The geomagnetic North pole is connected with the magnetic axis of the Earth
The North pole of inaccessibility is the northernmost point in the Arctic ocean and the most distant from the earth on all sides
Similarly, it was found 4 type the South pole:
The South magnetic pole is a point on the earth's surface where the magnetic field of the Earth is directed upwards
The geographic South pole is a point situated on a geographical axis of rotation of the Earth
South geomagnetic pole is connected with the magnetic axis of the Earth in the southern hemisphere
The South pole of inaccessibility is the point in Antarctica, the most remote from the coast of the southern ocean.
In addition there is the ceremonial South pole is an area designed for photo shootings at the station Amundsen-Scott. It is located a few metres from the geographic South pole, but as the ice all the time moves, mark shifted every year on 10 meters.
2. Geographic North and South pole: the ocean against the continent
The North pole is, in fact, a frozen ocean surrounded by continents. In contrast, the South pole is a continent surrounded by ocean.
In addition to the Arctic ocean, the Arctic region (North pole) includes part of Canada, Greenland, Russia, USA, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
The most southern point of the earth - Antarctica is the fifth largest continent, with an area of 14 million kV. km, 98 percent of which is covered by glaciers. It is surrounded by southern part of the Pacific ocean, the southern Atlantic ocean and the Indian ocean.
Geographical coordinates of the North pole: 90 degrees North latitude.
Geographical coordinates of the South pole: 90 degrees South latitude.
All lines of longitude converge at both poles.
3. The South pole is colder than the North pole
The South pole is much colder than the North pole. The temperature in Antarctica (South pole) is so low that in some places this continent, the snow never melts.
The average annual temperature in this area is 58 degrees Celsius in winter, and the highest temperature was recorded in 2011 and amounted -12,3 degrees Celsius.
In contrast, the average annual temperature in the Arctic region (North pole) is 43 degrees centigrade in winter and about 0 degrees in the summer.
There are several reasons why the South pole colder North. Because Antarctica is a huge land, it gets a little heat from the ocean. In contrast, the ice in the Arctic region are relatively thin, and below that is a whole ocean, which softens the temperature. Besides Antarctica is located on a hill at a height of 2.3 km and the air is colder here than in the Arctic ocean, which is at sea level.
4. At the poles don't have time
Time is determined by longitude. For example, when the Sun is directly above us, the local time is noon. However, on the poles of all lines of longitude cross, and the Sun rises and sets only once a year on the days of equinoxes.
For this reason, scientists and researchers at the poles use the time in all time zones, which they like. As a rule, they are oriented on the average Greenwich mean time or the time zone of the country from which they arrived.
Scientists at the station Amundsen-Scott, Antarctica can make a quick jog around the world, passing through 24 time zones in a few minutes.
5. Animals of the North and South poles
Many people create a wrong impression, as if the polar bears and penguins are in the same habitat.
Actually, penguins live only in the southern hemisphere - in Antarctica, where they have no natural enemies. If polar bears and penguins dwelt in one area, polar bears would not worry about the source of food.
In addition, at the North pole home to animals such as reindeer, lemmings, foxes, wolves, and marine animals: Beluga, killer whales, sea otters, seals, walruses, and more than 400 well-known fish species.
Polar bears in turn, are the biggest predators in the Northern hemisphere. They live in the Northern part of the Arctic ocean and eat seals, walruses, and sometimes even a beached whale. Among the sea animals of the South pole has whales, porpoises and seals.
6. No man's land
Although at the South pole in Antarctica, you can see lots of flags of different countries, this is the only place on earth that belongs to no one, and where there is no indigenous population.
Here is the Antarctic Treaty, according to which the territory and its resources must be used exclusively for peaceful and scientific purposes. Scientists, researchers and geologists - the only people who from time to time step on the land of Antarctica.
In contrast, North of the Arctic circle lives of more than 4 million people in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Scandinavia and Russia.
7. The polar night and polar day
Pole of the Earth is a unique place, where there is the longest day, which lasts 178 days, and the longest night, which lasts 187 days.
At the pole there is only one sunrise and one sunset in the year. At the North pole, the Sun begins to rise in March, the vernal equinox and falls in September at the fall equinox. On the South pole on the contrary, sunrise, at the time of the autumn equinox, and sunset - in day of a spring equinox.
In summer, the Sun is always above the horizon, and the South pole receives sunlight around the clock. In winter, the Sun is below the horizon, when there is round-the-dark.
8. Conquerors of the North and South poles
Many travelers were trying to reach the Earth's poles lost their lives on the path to these extreme points of our planet.
Who was the first to reach the North pole?
There were several expeditions to the North pole, since the 18th century. There are disagreements about who was the first to reach the North pole. In 1908 the American traveler Frederick cook was the first who declared that reached the North pole. But his compatriot Robert Peary refuted this statement, and April 6, 1909 he was officially considered as the first conqueror of the North pole.
The first flight over the North pole: Norwegian Explorer Roald Amundsen and Umberto Nobile 12 may 1926 airships "Norway"
The first submarine to the North pole: nuclear submarine "Nautilus" August 3, 1956
The first journey to the North pole alone: Japanese Naomi Uemura, 29 April 1978, after 725 km dog sledding for 57 days
The first expedition ski expedition Dmitry Shparo , may 31, 1979. Participants were 1500 km for 77 days.
First crossed the North pole: Lewis Gordon Pugh overcame 1 km in water temperature of -2 degrees Celsius in July 2007.
Who was the first to reach the South pole?
The first explorers of the South pole have become Norwegian Explorer Roald Amundsen and the British Explorer Robert Scott, in honor of whom was named the first station on the South pole station Amundsen-Scott. Both teams went a different way and reached the South pole with a difference of a few weeks, the first was Amundsen December 14, 1911, and then Rscott 17 January 1912.
The first flight over the South pole: the American Richard Byrd, in 1928
First crossed Antarctica without the use of animals and mechanical transport: Arvid Fuchs and Reinhold Meisner, 30 December 1989
9. North and South magnetic pole of the Earth
The magnetic pole of the Earth is associated with the magnetic field of the Earth. They are located in the North and the South, but not coincide with the geographic poles, because the magnetic field of the planet is changing. Unlike geographical, magnetic pole shift.
The magnetic North pole is not exactly in the Arctic region, and is shifting to the East at a speed of 10 to 40 km per year, as the magnetic field influence underground molten metals and charged particles from the Sun. The South magnetic pole is still in Antarctica, but it also shifted to the West with the speed of 10-15 km per year.
Some scientists believe that one day might be a change of magnetic poles, and this can lead to the destruction of the Earth. However, a change of magnetic poles already happened hundreds of times over the last 3 billion years, and it has not led to some terrible consequences.
10. Melting ice at the poles
The ice in Arctic in the area WithNorthern pole, usually melts in summer and again freeze in winter. However, in recent years, the ice cap has started to melt very fast.
Many researchers believe that by the end of the century, and perhaps in a few decades, the Arctic zone will remain without ice.
On the other hand in the Antarctic region at the South pole provides 90 percent of the world's ice. The thickness of the ice in Antarctica is on the average 2.1 km If all the ice in Antarctica melted, sea levels around the world would rise to 61 meters.
Fortunately in the near future it will not happen.
A few interesting facts about the North pole and the South pole:
1. At the station Amundsen-Scott South pole there is an annual tradition. After the last plane with food flies, researchers are looking two horror film: the film "Something" (about the alien creature that kills the inhabitants of the polar station in Antarctica), and the film"." (about the writer, which is empty distant hotel in winter)
2. Bird Arctic tern each year makes a record flight from the Arctic to Antarctica, flying more than 70 000 km
3. Island Kaffeklubben - a small island in the North of Greenland is considered a plot of land that is closest to the North pole in 707 km away.
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