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Viewings: 5967Will you do the "Golden state” the fate of Atlantis? Sixteen major lithospheric plates of the planet are in motion. That they do not stand still, we are reminded of the earthquake, which for the last 7 years killed more than half a million people. The most devastating were the quaking of the earth in Southeast Asia in 2004, Haiti in 2010 and in Japan in early March. Where is the next time can occur powerful release of energy to the surface of the earth's crust? One of the most unstable places scientists believe tectonic the San Andreas fault on the West coast of the US. And some even sure what the impact of elements can be fatal to California...
Pacific coast of North America is one of the most active seismic zones of our planet. Here there are two large lithospheric plates - Pacific and North America, the boundaries of which are breaks of earth crust. The San Andreas fault is one of the borders between the two plates. It stretches for 1300 km from South-West to North-East, diagonally across California. Its average depth of 16 km in the last 3 million years, the average rate of plates along this fault was 5.6 cm per year. Approximately so fast grow nails in humans.
The Pacific plate is moving to the North-West, North - South-East. The movement they have a constant contact, which ultimately is the cause of earthquakes. Deep underground plates come across ledges of firm breeds, thus limiting ourselves on each other. The longer holds "castle”, the more emanation of the energy on the surface of the crust.
The city of San Francisco, standing almost on the edge of the San Andreas fault, already experienced such a release of accumulated energy. It was here on April 18, 1906 earthquake, the power of which, according to various estimates, amounted to 7.8-8.3 points on the Richter scale. In the beginning of XX century was no concept of earthquake-resistant construction. Therefore, San Francisco was almost completely destroyed. Because of explosions of gas communications of the city was on fire. Wooden houses flashed like matches. Then killed about 3,000 people, not less than 225 thousand were left homeless. The gap of the earth's crust could be observed during 470 km. Depth some cracks reached 1 meter and width - 6.4 meters.
Once again San Andreas has loudly declared itself April 17, 1989. The epicenter of a powerful earthquake was located 10 km from the mountain tops of the Loma Prieta. Fortunately, at that time, many buildings were built taking into account the increased seismic activity of the region. However, 62 persons were lost, more than 3 thousand were injured. Not less than 18 thousand homes were destroyed, mainly in the city of Santa Cruz, which preserved many old buildings of the late XIX - early XX century.
Two example - the most famous and dramatic terms of human losses and destruction. However, in the history of the state of California they are not the only one. Earth "Golden state” is hopping on average 30 times a day. Only for the last two weeks, the U.S. Geological survey (USGS) has recorded more than 10 aftershocks capacity from 3 to 3.5 points, not to mention the more weak fluctuations. In theory this is a good thing, as this little shake-up should prevent the accumulation of excess energy potential. But...
Calm before the storm
The thing is that in addition to the "great and terrible” San Andreas next door is a lot of minor faults and cracks. At least five large enough. The quake occurred mainly in those cracks and faults. In the San Andreas fault of intense seismic activity was observed only in its Northern part. While on the Central segment of the last major earthquake occurred 1857, more 150 years ago. The more time passes since the last tangible tectonic shift, the higher the probability of a powerful earthquake in the future. In this regard, the special anxiety causes the southern segment of the San Andreas, which is already 300 years is under suspicious silence. Fears grow taking into account the fact that in this area there are such a densely populated city, as riverside, long beach and Los Angeles. For scientists, one thing is clear: a powerful earthquake in California inevitable. It is only a matter of time.
The most authoritative forecast UCERF was prepared by a team of scientists and experts from the USA. The most probable place a strong shake-up - southern California, it was here the last three hundred years reigns disturbing the peace. According to the forecast UCERF, earthquake M & GE; 6,7 will happen with probability 99,7% in the next 30 years. This research also provides 46% in favor of a possible earthquake with a capacity of M & GE; 7,5 during the same time period. However, the study was carried out 4 years ago. And during this time have changed the conditions and variables that would affect the final result.
In the Russian centre for earthquake prediction "Geoquake” assume that the Americans are wrong. Instead, you are offered a mysterious seismic method of entropy, which produced disappointing findings for Americans. A high-risk environment, as in the previous Outlook, was the southern California. That's only in the "Geoquake” consider that an earthquake of M & GE; 7,5 to happen until 2016. It is not excluded that the trouble can happen North of Los Angeles in 2011.
Yuri Fialko, Professor of the Institute of Oceanography Scrippa, together with colleagues tried to assess the effects of possible seismic gap, again in southern California. The basis was taken earthquake of 7.8 on the Richter scale with its epicenter in Bombay beach. According to calculations Fialko, tremors can last about a minute. With this power and duration even earthquake-resistant buildings can simply not withstand the load and crash. According to the most modest calculations of Mr. Fialko, if such jerks at least 1800 people will be killed, tens of thousands are injured. The economic damage will be at least $200 billion as of useful tips Professor of the Institute of Oceanography Scrippa recommends to get all the people of the state of elementary plan of action for emergencies. You have to have fire extinguishers and personal first aid. It is also important to have reserves of drinking water, which will last at least for a few days.
"Even the computer technology won't help...”
But the most fantastic assumptions are actively discussed in Russia. Allegedly in the case of strong earthquakes half of the state of California can slide into the ocean, or simply drown.
"MK” has decided to address to the expert Delirium AGARDO from the U.S. Geological survey (USGS)to ask whether California to suffer the fate of Atlantis.
- No. Plates move in parallel each other along the San Andreas fault. None does not fall below in relation to the other. Los Angeles is shifting to the Northwest, as it is located on the Pacific plate. But its altitude above sea level is not changed.
- What part of the San Andreas is the greatest risk?
- The most dangerous part is its southern part, which is located East of Los Angeles, closer to the Mexican border. Here for several centuries not been a serious seismic activity. While in the Northern part of the fault was discharging in the form of an earthquake of 1906.
- How active rest breaks and cracks in California?
- Very active. Recently there were several large earthquakes caused by tectonic processes in these faults. For example, earthquakes 1992 Lenders and 1994 Northridge, both caused considerable destruction and led to the deaths of dozens of people.
In the area of the Hayward fault-Rodgers Creek to the East of San Francisco, the probability of a major earthquake is 30%. Hayward-Rodgers Creek runs parallel San Andreas, and is part of the General system of California rifts. About the same chances of a break San Jacinto. He is like a branch of San Andreas.
- Can the existing U.S. system of warning of earthquakes to help avoid serious human losses?
- The main measure to prevent the deaths of people is the building rules and regulations. The buildings are being constructed, so they can withstand tremors and not collapsed. At the moment, in California there are no systems that report the slightest fluctuations of sex that are available in Japan. But even the most modern computer technologies will not help if you are close to the epicenter of the earthquake, because the velocity of seismic waves is very high.
"It comes without warning”
Dr. Alan Lind from the U.S. Geological survey (USGS) said: "Earthquake causing great fear among the people because it comes without warning. This is probably the only event, in addition to nuclear war, during 10 seconds to level your beautiful city with the earth”.
Natural disasters remind people about how far we are from the status of the master of nature. Against the background of global processes such as the movement of lithospheric plates and the resulting earthquake, the person looks tiny and helpless. Japan is a country of the most advanced technologies, and she was able to survive after the crushing blow of nature. The courage of the Japanese people is washimenie.
But what if an earthquake would be 1.5 times more powerful? There is no guarantee that people will not suffer affliction much great strength. Because we know so little about the structure of our planet that hardly can surely something to say. What potential it holds in its bosom?
But our civilization continues to exist as if everything is in our hands. We like insects on the surface of a thin crust. Build your own ant hills. We drill holes in the planet, retrieved her juices. Destroy and poison the life around him. In the best traditions "scientific-technical Bolshevism” we are destroying the temple of nature and sell off its value. There are on the planet clean and untouched corners, but every year there are less and less. Mankind has repeatedly pressed himself limb in the process of turning the environment into one big "workshop”. And it is possible that one of "machines” we will cut off his head. After all, most of all, we suffer from their own inventions. The most tragic consequence of the March earthquake in Japan was the accident at the NPP. The object that generates energy and should ease our life turned into a nightmare. If it had been so strong that giant wave would destroy several NPP? And dare them to the ground, and we would get something worse 10 Chernobyls together. Earth will experience a full-scale nuclear catastrophe. However, purification from radioactive infection will take at least several hundred thousand years. But the Earth, given the length of its life cycle, have such time. But we don't.
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