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10 экспериментов, которые коснутся каждогоToday you a dozen scientific experiments which may change for the better our lives in the coming decades. Very soon we will be able to enjoy the benefits of these scientific researches.

Implantation of "smart" microcapsules in the human body

This device was invented in NASA research center in California.
It is a carbon nanotube that can be implanted under the skin.
Imagine a smart microcapsule sewn into the human body, which enters into the blood vital to the individual medication at the right time and in the required doses.

Such a device could save hundreds of thousands of sick people who need to take medicines. For example, if nanotubes to put the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that normally produce insulin, it can be used to treat diabetes.

One of modifications of this device it is planned to implant astronauts. The idea is that in nanotubes contain biological material (live cells, which react, for example, to increase radiation during solar flares and highlights the drug that protect the body astronaut. Cells that are in nanotubes can be modified by means of genetic engineering in a way that they have produced the desired substances in response to environmental changes.

To protect against radiation, for example, protein G-CSF is a substance that has already been applied in radiotherapy of cancer patients.

Carbon nanotubes should have pores, allowing the cells to grow and divide, and the cure is to stand out in the host organism. Now capsules tested on animals. But soon scientists will go to the experiments on volunteers.

Machines, absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

Future climate change on the planet has long been discussed at all levels of society. The main cause of global warming is carbon dioxide, in huge quantities produced by industrial enterprises and transport systems around the world. Canadian firm Carbon Engineering hopes to change the situation by chemical extraction of this gas from the atmosphere.

Invented by the specialists of the machine can suck the air and pass it through the hydroxide solution. As a result of this carbon dioxide is converted into solid carbon residue - carbonate. And it can already be used for industrial purposes or just bury it in the ground.
Last year there were tests of this device, which 500 hours worked, successfully removing carbon dioxide from the air. The following experiment will last for several thousand hours. Engineers interested in how the device will respond to different weather conditions.

The company hopes to develop a commercial pilot project in 2013. Each module of the device will remind giant cooling tower of the nuclear power station and be able to extract 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere per year. Our civilization produces annually 30 billion tons of this gas, there will need to work 30 thousand modules to completely neutralize the influence of mankind on the earth's climate.

The solution to the problem of superconductors

In superconductors is the future of the transmission and storage of electricity. These materials have a very low, almost zero resistance.

They can be applied at manufacturing of cables and batteries for power systems. But the problem is that all currently known superconductors are only at very low temperatures: less -163 °C. Therefore they should be cooled and well isolated, which in itself is very expensive. You want to find materials that sverkhprovodniki at higher temperatures. And this is in the competence of quantum physics and its intricate laws concerning the behavior of subatomic particles. Problem no power of modern computers.

But scientists of the National Institute of standards and technology USA has developed "quantum stimulator" - a computer system that will help researchers to plan and to stimulate interactions between quantum particles and easy to read information about the results of these interactions. Thus it will be possible to compare the known superconductors with other materials and find the one suitable.

The creation of a unified model of all laws and phenomena in physics

The standard model of particle physics is currently the best system for understanding the behavior of subatomic particles. However, it cannot explain the phenomena of gravitation and the Universe expansion is taking place at an increasing rate. The creation of a single model that will cover all known physical phenomena in nature, will be an outstanding breakthrough in science, comparable to the development of the quantum theory. On the basis of the quantum theory now lasers work, microelectronic devices, quartz clock, created neskrivaema codes, there is much more that were not even imagined, until the theory was formulated.

How can deviate surrounding us reality from the predictions of the standard model? The answer appears after experiments with the Large hadron Collider, the giant particle accelerator. It works with large energy. It is a collision of particles - protons.

More promising is the collision of electrons and positrons, as in this experiment, you can set and change the energy of each collision and to explore simpler final status. But these particles cannot be used to in a circle, as in this case they will give their energy in all directions. This phenomenon is known as synchrotron radiation. The solution is obvious: you have to break them in a straight line using linear accelerator. It is this construction is planned to build in the near future.
Its length will amount to 50 kilometers. To build it can in Japan, America, Switzerland or Russia.

Alzheimer's Petri-dish

Currently, there are 26 million people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This is more than the entire population of Australia.

In the UK such patients 800 thousand. It is expected that these indicators will double by 2050. The cause of the disease is still unknown, and no effective treatment. Patients can only improve the quality of life. To study the disease requires sample of the brain tissue of a living person, but to get them for obvious reasons it is impossible. And animal experiment in this case, it is useless, because only people are susceptible to this disease.

Therefore, it is difficult to overestimate the significance of the work of the two independent groups of researchers from Cambridge and California universities. They were able to grow brain cells in the laboratory and to observe the development of Alzheimer's right on the Petri dishes. It was found out that the disease begins with the gradual accumulation of small cellular anomalies. Scientists took the skin cells of patients in the clan of whom were sick of them received stem cells that can turn into any other, such as the brain. On them, and study the effect of different substances to find the means to stop the development of the disease. The researchers hope on successful completion of the project in the next three to five years.

The search for extraterrestrial civilizations

Since 1995, when it was opened the first star similar to the Sun with the surrounding planets - 51 Pegasi and its planet Bellerophon, - astrophysics started learning about 760 of the planets on the subject of the existence for them of civilization. It turns out that these planets are from their suns about the same distance as Earth is from its sun, receive from them much less light and heat.

Astrophysicist and Professor of the University of Colorado Webster Cache proposed device "dimming of stars" - special spacecraft, which can block out the light from the star, allowing sensitive instruments telescope to study any planet. This will make it possible spectroscopic investigation of light from these planets to determine their chemical composition and the presence or absence of the atmosphere. You can also find out whether there are surrounded by planets water vapor. A key biomarker, i.e. a substance that speaks about presence of life, is oxygen. It trying to find the researchers.

Development of new engines for spacecrafts

The launch of the spacecraft in earth orbit is quite a difficult task. The speed of the spacecraft has 25 times the speed of sound. This requires multi-stage mass of flesh, having on Board a large amount of fuel that accidental explosion will remind the explosion of a small nuclear bomb. In addition to this danger, there is also a financial problem. Such a flight worth tens of thousands of dollars per kilogram of cargo, located in the rocket. But this state of Affairs will soon be changed.

In the British company Reaction Engines designed a reusable unmanned spacecraft Skylon, devoid of the above shortcomings. The key to the success of this project is the development of space SABRE engine completely new system that can operate in two modes: reactive (gas turbine) engine and a rocket engine.

The main type of fuel is hydrogen, and an oxidant, such as oxygen. During takeoff and landing oxygen will flow into the engine directly from the atmosphere. And after the exit into space in case cametoe internal tanks with oxidizer. Now the main components of the new engine has already been created and are preparing for the comprehensive test. In case of success and implementation of the project cost spacecraft to orbit the Earth will decrease in 15 to 50 times. The maximum weight of a payload that will deliver to the space Skylon, 12-15 tons to a height of 300 kilometers and 9.5 to 10.5 tons - for-height is 460 kilometers.

The cultivation of "superphonic"

In order to feed a growing world population requires agricultural land with area of South America.
Scientists are trying to find more effective ways of obtaining food. Experts from Wheat Yield Consortium (Consortium for wheat yields) believe that one of the ways of solving this problem is the elimination of "superphonic"modified plants for more edible biomass. The objective of development is to increase productivity by 50% within 25 years. But how?

With the help increase the efficiency of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process going on in the plant for the formation of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water in the light with the participation of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll in plants, bakteriokhlorofill and bacteriorhodopsin bacteria). It is planned to increase the efficiency of this process, affecting one of the enzymes responsible for the first stage of photosynthesis - the fixation of carbon. Here can be used as biochemical and genetic methods. This project is still under-resourced, but the first experiments have been started in Mexico.

Creation of safe nuclear plants

In 1954 in Obninsk was built the world's first nuclear power plant. Nuclear energy has since declared an inexhaustible energy source of the future. However, after the known events in Chernobyl and Fukushima, it became clear that these plants represent a huge danger. In connection with this problem, a draft called ITER (ITER) - the world's largest fusion reactor being built right now in France the joint efforts of the European Union, India, China, South Korea, Russia, USA and Japan. Thermonuclear reactor is much safer nuclear reactor with regards to radiation. The number of used radioactive substances is relatively small.

The energy that can be released in the accident, too small and cannot lead to the destruction of the reactor. The design of the reactor is that there are natural barriers preventing spread of radioactive substances. However, the design of ITER great attention was paid to radiation safety - both during normal operation and during possible accidents. Energy in it will be merging the nuclei of deuterium and tritium (hydrogen isotopes with excess neutrons). This fuel is safe, since when it is used, there are no chain reaction. The result is not a long-term radioactive contamination. Moreover, deuterium very much in sea water, tritium can easily be obtained from lithium.

Machines that can edit DNA

The possibility of changing the human DNA that has placed the minds of scientists and doctors around the world. Since it became known about the dependence of various diseases from the sequence of the genome of a living organism, there are a variety of genetic, genetic engineering and biochemical research for the development of treatment methods with changes in DNA. The beginning of many discoveries in biology associated with bacteria. It is relatively easily arranged beings, which presents many fundamental processes in the human organism. Now using them is industrial synthesis of medicinal substances. To microbes served the man as he needs, scientists have learned to make in their DNA appropriate changes.

However, such experiments require a lot of time, effort and cost and not always successful.
In the near future the American Corporation LS9 is going to provide the population with cheap fuel, medicines, and maybe even eating. All this would be done in bioreactors on the basis of cheap raw materials - different organic waste, wood chips and so on. One of the leaders of the project George Church together with his colleagues developed a new approach for obtaining micro-organisms with the desired properties. A new technology called MAGE (Multiplexautomated genomic engineering), the "umerenno-automated genome engineering". It is based on a new device that could be called "the machine of evolution".

It allows to produce the bacterial DNA by 50 changes simultaneously, that is, in one experiment to test 50 options. And when the choice is so great, it's easier and faster to find what you need. Scientists now are searching for "fuel" microbes that will synthesize different mixtures of hydrocarbons, similar in composition for fuel. The first pilot installation is started last year in San Francisco, and it already employs bacteria-chemists of the first generation. From sugarcane they produce thousands of gallons of biofuels per week. This fuel is crystal clear and corresponds to the world standards.

The authors believe that the principle of accelerated evolution in the car will allow to receive such modified bacteria that will be in huge numbers to synthesize cheap nutrients and various medications.

Executive Director of the project LS9 bill Haywood optimistically States: "We heal the world". I would like to believe that it will.
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