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Для украинского климата игра закончилась?Climate plays such an important role in the ecological system of the planet that even small changes have negative consequences for people and the economic system as a whole. Change the status of climate change impacts on people and nature in countless ways that often leads to an increase of the existing threats that are already putting pressure on the environment. But this is not a problem that appeared in one night, even 30 years ago, the first time scientists have warned the world about the dangers of climate change.

According to specialists, the modern climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse effect. Over the past century, the average global temperature rose to 0,8? With, and until 2050 year, in the result of the impact on climate of anthropogenic factor, it is planned to increase by another 1.5-2.

How it all started...

In 1991, after the economic, social and political problems, the Soviet Union collapsed and Ukraine was formed as a new, independent country. Then we were faced with many problems, among which is not the last place occupied environmental. They were the consequence of excessive exploitation of natural resources in the Soviet period. As a result, many plots of land and the sea noticeably degraded, there is a shortage of water, especially in dry years, the depletion of the soil and wind erosion, which destroyed tons of productive land, have also been polluted by industrial waste, air, water and earth. In addition, because the climate of Ukraine is sufficiently dry with very frequent droughts, has added an additional burden on the economy, especially agriculture.

The situation for today

As time goes by, the situation is also aggravated by the increasing number of natural disasters and the demand for water for industry, agriculture and human existence.

Recently there appeared some problems connected with the increase of average air temperature throughout the world. So, this phenomenon has already led to changes in the physical properties of surfaces, which in turn led to a deterioration in the quality and composition of water, the change of the temperature regime and increased land degradation. All these changes have already had an impact on human health, agriculture, available agricultural land and forest resources. Today it is believed that the climate of Ukraine has become less continental, and sometimes approaches the sea.

To monitor such violations around the world there are many high quality networks of observation points. Nowadays Ukraine has about 180 meteorological stations, the total area of observation which is 577567 square kilometers. One station for approximately 3108 square kilometers that allows for effective monitoring of the impact of climate change on socio-economic activities.

Last achievements in the field of satellite technologies, improvement of ground-based observations of environmental and socio-economic data allow to draw a more accurate analysis of consequences of natural disasters and their impacts on the economy and agriculture. Unfortunately,
Ukraine has no such opportunity due to lack of data records of long-term observations, which could characterize the impact and future trends of climate change, and data about the change of the composition of the soil and vegetative cover, which must be brought by using satellite observations and agricultural activities.

Water resources

Rivers and lakes are responsible for the availability of drinking water for all people and animals and are vital to agriculture and industry of Ukraine, and the inhabitants of the oceans and seas have long we are a very healthy food.

Today, climate change is increasingly affect these resources that soon may cause serious and unpredictable consequences, for example, extreme drought (southern and Southeast regions) or floods (Carpathian region), the spread of various infectious diseases. So, already today the Crimea and some southern regions of Ukraine suffer from a lack of good quality fresh water, and that thing with average annual temperatures this problem worsens every year.

Forest - lungs of the planet

Forests clean our air, improve water quality, give us food, wood products and medicines, and are home to many animals. They also help to protect the planet from climate change, absorbing huge amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the main sources of pollution that causes climate change. Unfortunately, at present the Ukrainian forests are being destroyed at an alarming rate, some of them do, forest harvesting, ignite, to clear (clear) the land for agriculture or livestock. This is the cause of the release of huge quantities of carbon dioxide and other harmful greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Scientists estimate that as a result of deforestation, emissions of carbon is greater than the emissions from each vehicle and aircraft combined.

Food industry

Climate change also has a significant impact on food availability, use and food system stability. Today this phenomenon is a significant risk of increasing neurogenetic", death of cattle and the impact on food security in the country. In the future, these changes will increasingly affect the health of our citizens, their livelihoods, and the ability to buy food.

About 70 percent of the population of Ukraine lives at the expense of agriculture, and 40 percent of total agricultural exports. It is from the state of the climate directly depends on the existence of agriculture and food supply and demand. However, still a little-known fact how climate change will affect food supply, and the demand for goods in Ukraine.

Global warming has already led to some changes on the Ground, including in Ukraine. Experts say that against the background of this warming our citizens are increasingly likely to notice the long, intense drought.

Ways of solving problems

Many issues need to be addressed at the global and regional levels. It is necessary to conduct a thorough analysis of climate change and food security based on remote sensing and in the natural occurrence data sets. These data refer to different systems and should be integrated in order to address the issues discussed above. Some efforts for integration of data sets from different systems already applied with the development of the Global observing system Earth (GEOSS). However, GEOSS has its disadvantages, regional surveillance systems need to integrate results of satellite observations of the earth's surface, climate data and socio-economic characteristics.

The key objective will be possible, if you follow a few guidelines. The first step to solving this problem is to develop a system that contains a long-term remote sensing data and data sets characterizing climate, land cover and agricultural settings. Another recommendation is determining current and future trends in climate, and the creation of models of agricultural production that will be better suited to the climatic and soil-vegetation cover in Ukraine. Also, an important step is early warning various natural disasters, for example, summer drought or low temperatures in winter, affecting food security in Ukraine.

Palamarchuk Irina
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