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Утечка в параллельный мирTwo Italian physics - Zurab Berezhiani and Fabrizio Bear said that they have found considerable leakage of neutrons in a magnetic trap somewhere. The authors say that, probably, of a particle flow in a mirror world. Their findings have yet to undergo further experimental testing, however, the item itself is a good reason to recollect once popular physical hypothesis of the existence of mirror matter.

Symmetric universe

At the core of most physical theory lies the notion of symmetry. Scientists, however, understand it somewhat broader than the geometric representation that we face in everyday life (axial, Central, turning symmetry). They are also under the symmetry understand some non-trivial transformation that preserves a sense laws describing one or another process. For example, the rules governing the movement of aircraft, no matter it flies from South to North and from West to East. Speaking more generally, this illustration of the concept of the isotropy of our three-dimensional space - the lack of any special directions along which the laws of nature would have a different formula than in other areas (in reality, of course, there Finsler geometry, in which this principle is not met, however, will not run in such scientific Dali).

This notion, the notion of symmetry, plays a fundamental role not only because it ensures the beauty of the obtained equations. It turns out that the fundamental laws of conservation of energy, momentum, and other physical quantities are a direct consequence of the presence of symmetries (continuous groups of symmetries, to be exact). This fundamental to all physical science fact was installed in the beginning of XX century Emmy Noether.

In elementary particle physics, which will be discussed, there are three main types of symmetries. The first type is the so - called C-symmetry, from the English charge, which means the charge. The presence of this symmetry means that the laws of physics do not change, if everywhere in the system to change the particle charge is on the opposite, changing the direction of the magnetic and electric fields. For example, the statement "similar charges repel and unlike gravitate can be considered as the simplest example of a physical law that meet the requirement of C-symmetry. Indeed, similar charges remain the same after the simultaneous change of the sign, as unlike remain opposite.

The second type of symmetry is the so - called T-symmetry. Its essence is that if you reverse the flow of time is the opposite of the law, describing the motion of a particle does not change. An example of such rules can serve as Newton's second law, binding force and acceleration. To understand why this is so, imagine a film that lose backwards, it will be the change of the direction of time on the opposite. On the screen go back machine, flinching people. However, they do it at the same speed as when the correct view movie - changed direction. From the point of view of physics, this means that the speed of change sign. Acceleration, i.e. the rate of change of speed remains the same - in fact, exactly because minus minus gives a plus. This fact implies the invariance of the second law of Newton. However, this type of symmetry we almost do not need.

Finally, the third type of fundamental symmetries in the world of elementary particles is P-symmetry. To understand what this type of symmetry, it is enough to look at her hands. Two of them left and the right. However, no matter how hard we tried, nor was played by the right hand, we will not be able to do so that it will look like the left. This is because from the point of view of mathematics right and left hand differently oriented. However, looking at his left hand in the mirror, we see that it is no different from the right. Now, the P-symmetry of this symmetry under mirroring space, as they say mathematics, the display changes orientation. In the macrocosm symmetry of this kind, of course, there are - for example, RHD vehicle can be driven as well as left-hand drive. In microcosm, however, much more difficult.

The lack of symmetry produces monsters

Now fast forward to the 50-ies of the last century. Almost all of physics sure of the inviolability of C - and P-symmetry with respect to the weak interaction (one of the four fundamental interactions associated, for example, with some types of nuclear disintegration). In 1956, the young Chinese physics Janda Whether and Jannin young, analyzing the accumulated at the time of the experimental data, Express rather seditious at that moment a thought: when the weak interaction violated both types of symmetry. Their findings they base on the accumulated at the time of data about various kinds of asymmetric processes, which include, for example, the decay of neutrons. With this collapse neutrinos and electrons scatter asymmetrically (already in a geometrical sense). To check your own assumptions scientists offer several types of experiments.

In the same year a group of scientists under the leadership of the Chinese Wu Zinsen from the lab at Columbia University, holds one of the suggested experiments. Kernel cobalt-60 at very low temperatures and in the presence of a strong magnetic field decay into nuclei of isotopes of Nickel 60Ni, electrons and electron neutrinos. Careful measurements show that in the direction of the nuclear spin (spin direction here is convenient to same as the direction along the axis of rotation of the nucleus, as defined by rule of the right thumb) electrons crashes less than in the opposite direction, and this exactly means the violation of P-symmetry. It is easy to understand if to reflect the process in the mirror is parallel to the velocity vector. This reflected the velocity vector will not change, but the spin will change its direction for the opposite (just because he changed the direction of rotation of the nucleus).

It then appeared the term "mirror matter". So themselves Lee and Yang called mysterious hypothetical particles, for which the laws of the weak interaction should be mirror-symmetric normal. Then the idea has not caught - quickly emerged theory of the great Soviet physicist Lev Landau that in the weak interaction is saved so-called CP-symmetry (it's just a simultaneous change of the charges, directions of electric and magnetic fields on the opposite and mirroring coordinates). In his theory on the role of mirror particles was perfect antiparticles. At that time, in reality it is a physical object nobody doubted the positrons (anti corresponding to the electron) were opened in 1932. It is not surprising that physicists have preferred an existing object of some kind of abstraction.

In 1964, however, the CP-symmetry experienced a devastating blow - American physicists James Cronin and Val Fitch found in the decay of neutral kaons (this is such particles) violation of this symmetry. For this work both received the Nobel prize in physics in 1980 (and for the explanation of this phenomenon that led to the emergence of the third collection of quarks, the same Nobel prize was given Yoichiro Nambu, Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide of Maskava already in 2008).

At the same time the mirror matter was back in the field of attention of physicists, now Soviet. In 1966 in the journal "Nuclear physics" published an article "On the experimental discovery of mirror particles", written by Igor Kobzareva, Lev Okun and Isaac Pomeranchuk. In this work the first time scientists have seriously looked at the properties of such a hypothetical matter. In the following activities, they found that it interacts with itself. This means that if matter exists, there should be a mirror atoms and even, perhaps, mirror celestial bodies (1983). It turned out that such a mirror matter will interact with our world only through gravity. Thus in near-Earth this mirror matter is almost there (1979). If it were, it would contribute to significant disturbances in the movement of heavenly bodies, which astrophysicists, of course, would have been able to discover.

As is often the case, the existence of mirror matter the rest of the world (not the USSR) have learned more from other people - in 1991, there was a corresponding article of Robert Feet from the University of Melbourne. Currently, he is best known adept mirrored theory.

Dark against the mirror

Interest in the mirror of matter in recent years has arisen because of the so-called problem of hidden mass, also known as dark matter. In short, watching the spins of the stars around the centers of galaxies, the scientists found that the brightness of the edges of moving too fast. Traditional models predict that the rate should be inversely proportional to the square root of the distance to the axis of rotation. In turn, in fact the speed remains almost constant. To explain this effect introduced the concept of dark matter, or dark matter.

What is this mass, while nobody knows. Currently one of the most popular hypotheses believes that hidden mass consists of non-baryonic matter. In fact, this means that the particles of such matter almost do not participate in the electromagnetic (hence the name "dark"because the light is electromagnetic radiation), weak and strong interactions, however, are well involved in gravity. One of the most popular theories is the theory of winow - weakly insamodejstwu massive particles. Several experiments around the world are looking for a similar matter. Now, mirror matter is perfect for dark matter - because, as we remember, it manifests itself only by gravitational interactions. Currently, however, this hypothesis is not too popular, and, with the exception of a small group of physicists, it no one really does.

The results of two Italian physicists, Zurab Berezhiani and Fabrizio to Bear, it may be possible to radically change this situation. What made these two? They published in European Physical Journal article, in which he recounted his own analysis of the experimental data physics Anatoly Serebrova from the Petersburg Institute of nuclear physics Konstantinov. Serebrov at the French Institute Laue-Langevin experimentally studied the process of the content of neutrons in ultra-cold neutron trap. He managed to establish that the loss is about 1 percent of neutrons. Statistical analysis conducted by Berezhiani and be identified with sufficient certainty that the loss of neutrons is not connected with their flowing away through the walls of the trap.

By itself, this fact is quite interesting, especially if it can confirm in other experiments. However, through the work of the scientists themselves offer unexpected explanation. Once this process is seemingly inexplicable from the point of view of standard physics, it can be explained as follows: the neutron oscillate, ranging between his usual condition and mirror. In fact particle flow in a parallel world.

The main drawback of the new work that researchers left colleagues verification of the consequences of the presence of such oscillations is quite often that exotic theories in contradiction with experimental data. Only a few people survive in this theoretical battle and go up to direct experimental verification.

On the other hand, if the fact of presence such as unexplained phenomena - leakage of neutrons is confirmed, it will be great. Because it's interesting.
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