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Viewings: 5788Space is infinite. But the cosmos, which is most often we talk about is near the sun space. The scientists called the heliosphere ("Helio"- Sun). This space belongs to the Sun because it fills their plasma streams of charged and neutral particles. Actually, this is the Sun's corona. We are the children of the Sun and live in the Sun's corona. Everything in our life depends on the Sun.
But the Sun is not only the source of life, but also the source of death. In fact, life in the solar space (the heliosphere) is possible only where the magnetic field protects living beings from solar radiation. The earth has a magnetic field, the magnetic protection, and therefore, and came to life. The moon's magnetic field does not and there is no life.
Magnetic field protects from one type of solar radiation - charged particles. Their movement is directed magnetic field. But there is another solar radiation, harmful to life - ultraviolet and x-rays. From them we protect the atmosphere, in particular the ozone layer. Destroying it, we are setting ourselves under this radiation. And this is the cause of cancer, cataracts and more. Thus, life on Earth, in our earthly house, is possible because it is arranged in a special way, and, of course, because there is the Sun. Let's consider it in more detail.
Biological life on the Earth originated approximately 0.5 billion years ago. This became possible primarily due to solar radiation. For all this time the radiation energy of the Sun has changed slightly, not more than two times. If these changes were more significant, they would reflect on the earth's processes so strong that the effects we found even in our time on fossils.
People could not assess the role of the Sun in his life. He worshipped the Sun, knowing that it depends not only welfare, but life itself. And, of course, he was anxiously waiting for the reappearance of the Sun after sunset. But the ancient man was comforting thought that the Sun will come again, that in due time the Sun caught in a trap and made properly to perform his duties in the sky. Thus, in numerous legends of primitive peoples says that before the Sun was moving in the sky arbitrarily.
Especially worried about the disappearance of the Sun, which, as we understand might occur during solar eclipses, bad weather, or the appearance of clouds of dust and volcanic ash. Not understanding the true causes of the disappearance of the Sun, our ancestors brought with different motives. In some legends Sun abducted and crammed into prison, and in others the Sun itself disappears on them deliberately to punish people for the evil that they do on Earth. In the Egyptian legends night journey of the Sun seemed very dramatic - it's got every night to swim through the caves inside the Earth, fighting with demons and wild beasts, each time try to stop him.
People living near the Arctic circle or after it (for example, Eskimos) , observed the Sun, or during the whole day, or most of them. It was in the polar day. In the polar night the Sun for a long time hiding from them. They believed that the Sun in the polar day is just swims around the Northern horizon, and even when it is not visible, is not very far. About this spoke the Northern lights, which, in the opinion of the Eskimos, was a reflection of the sun.
But the Sun not only worship watched him, trying to understand the laws to which it is subjected. So, the ancient Babylonians and Chaldeans made numerous observations, it was determined the position of the stars, the movement of the Sun and planets. Already with 747 BC they were tables of lunar and solar eclipses. Perhaps they could even predict the timing of eclipses.
Later, the Greeks went further, to about 434 BC Anaxagoras suggested that the Sun is a mass of hot stone. For this he was expelled from Athens. Thales of Miletus predicted a solar Eclipse in VI century B.C. He knew that the Moon has a spherical shape, and the moonlight is not that other, as reflected sunlight. The successor of Thales, Pythagoras and his disciples have developed a model of the Solar system in which the Earth and other planets moved around some Central body, which, however, was not identified with the Sun (as it actually is), and with a sort of "the Central fire"that is invisible. But already in the third century B.C. Aristarchus clearly stated that all the planets, including the Earth, move it around the Sun. It is amazing that this truth was again returned to the people in 1543 Copernicus Aristarchus also decided the question of why the day and night. He realized that it was due to the spherical rotation of the Earth around its axis. But the father of modern astronomy consider not Aristarchus, and Hipparcos who lived in the second century B.C. He measured (naturally, approximately) the diameter of the globe, the distance to the moon and its volume. Hipparchus explained the true reason of solar eclipses. He developed a method of determining the distance to the Sun. The method itself was correct, but attainable accuracy of measurement at that time was insufficient to get the correct values. The distance from the earth to the Sun, defined by the Hipparcos, remained unchanged until 1620 Subsequent changes of this magnitude were actually random. So, Kepler in 1620 increased data of the ISU-Parham dimensions of the Sun and the distance from the earth to the Sun three times. No explicit reason for this was not. After that, these values have increased equally randomly a few more times. And only in 1672 astronomer Cassini has set the minimum distance from the earth to the Sun. This value was correct. It is different from the contemporary only 10%. This was confirmed by the observations of Venus, when she passed through the Solar disk. The meaning of these observations is the following.
We are talking about Venus is not accidental. Observations revealed that the angle between the line of sight to the Sun and Venus does not exceed 45 degrees. Of an isosceles triangle Earth - Venus - Sun, you can easily establish that its lateral side (that is, the distance Earth - Venus or Venus - Sun) 0 7 the distance from the earth to the Sun. So, if you measure the distance from Earth to Venus, you can determine the distance from the earth to the Sun. The distance from Earth to Venus can be defined so. When Venus is located exactly between the earth and the Sun, then we "see" the disk of the Sun. In this case, to determine the distance to Venus can just as determine the distance to the object on the ground for some insurmountable obstacle (lake, river). For this purpose two items are really measuring of angles between the line of sight to the object and the line connecting the point of observation. Knowing three elements of the triangle (the basis and the two adjacent corner), you can define all of its other elements, and hence the true distance to the object. Hence, to determine the distance to Venus, it is necessary to conduct surveillance of the two possible very remote areas. The more the distance, the higher the accuracy of the distance measurement.
Knowing exactly the same distance (for example, from Earth to Venus), you can define all the other dimensions of the Solar system. The fact that the observation angles allows to make the exact pattern of the system. It remains only to establish the scale. And for this purpose it is enough to know exactly the same distance. Convenient position Venus is not often. It was recently in 1874 and 1882, and in the nearest future it'll happen again on 8 June 2004 and June 6, 2012, But in principle, except Venus, you can use and position of other planets, such as Mars or asteroid Eros.
Why does the Sun Shine?
We see the glowing Sun disc. Why is he on? The light that we see emerging in the Central part of the Sun which is called by the kernel. There are a nuclear reaction in which hydrogen nuclei is converted into helium nuclei. This quanta are emitted with very high energy. Such radiation is called gamma rays.
This gamma-ray emission from the core of the Sun sneaks to the surface very slowly. On its way it meets the atoms, which absorb it. But these atoms immediately again emit photons. But energy is less than the energy of quanta absorbed. So on the way to the surface of the Sun, the light quanta repeatedly absorbed and re pereklokayutsia. Therefore, they gradually lose their energy. This means that the frequency radiation at the time of his exit from the core of the Sun to the surface decreases. When radiation comes out, it becomes visible. We are perceived as the Sun.
Observing from the Earth, the Sun, we do not see that the visible light comes not from the surface and from the layer thickness. This layer is called the photosphere, that is, a sphere of light. The thickness of the stellar photosphere is about 300 km
The energy from the solar core to the surface is moved not only by radiation. There is another way of energy transfer from very heated layer beneath the Sun (several million degrees) to the relatively cold external part of 6000 degrees) . One of the prominent scientists-specialists in the Sun said that in this case is the same as in a red-hot pan with porridge. Simply put, are bubbling. In fact, agitation, by which heat is transferred from the hotter regions to less hot. Scientists such mixing is called convection.
Beneath the visible surface of the Sun is a layer of solar gas that boils. This zone is called the convective zone, mixing solar propheticSTV. Actually, this mixing may partly be observed through telescopes. When the hot jets of solar gas rise to the solar surface, their tops are seen as more bright areas of the stellar photosphere. They are hot, and therefore brighter. Those gases that has had time to cool off, darker. They go down. The bright region in the photosphere has size about 700 km. called granules. Granules before her eyes arise in several minutes disappear.
The sun is not limited to the bright disk that we see. During solar eclipses, when the light of the solar disk is not cutting our eyes, you can see the glow off the disc. This suggests that the Sun has its own atmosphere.
The lower part of the solar atmosphere called the chromosphere, that is painted sphere. This was due to red-orange color of gas. Here is dominated by hydrogen, and it glows red. Gas density here is very small, hundreds of times less than the density of the air near the Earth's surface.
Red-orange color chromosphere gives it a very exotic look. If to observe the solar chromosphere a telescope, you can see a picture that compares with a burning Prairie. The speaker of red flame now and then vzletaya above the surface. The higher in the atmosphere, the solar gas more mobile.
Above the chromosphere is the Sun's corona. It is impermanent. The density of matter in the crown is very small - in the billions of times less than the density of the air near the Ground. The temperature of the gas in the crown reaches a million degrees.
Since the photosphere of the Sun, that is, its visible surface, the person could be observed from the Earth from the very beginning of its existence, and without any instruments and tools, it is not surprising that the earliest records of the Sun is information about the photosphere. The Sun people noticed stains. Description of sunspots found in ancient Chinese annals, Arabic and Armenian Chronicles, in Russian Chronicles. Thus, in the Nikon chronicle for 1371-1372, read, "...there was a sign in the Sun, designated black in the Sun as nails... Shomen was great, and the heat and the heat much as they feared and trembled people, many rivers parasochka, and lakes and swamps, forests and forests goryacho, and the earth goryache. And there was fear and trembling at all capoocan, and there was then Dorogan great and smooth great in all the earth... " Now we know on the basis of scientific data, which at that time was the most intense period of activity of the Sun at any time since 684 B.C. till our days. But we still need to understand what the solar activity.
Sunspots were observed not always. Therefore, these are rare events and recorded in Chronicles and annals. However, not only so, but also because these periods seemed ominous, as if they were signs of trouble, as we read in the Nikon chronicle. It is clear that without telescopes, to the naked eye, people could watch only outstanding education in the Sun. Spot smaller remained unnoticed .
The situation has changed radically with the advent of the first telescope (telescope). The observation of sunspots in telescopes started at the beginning of the XVII century, They were carried out almost simultaneously Italian Galileo Galilei, Dutch Johann Fabricius and German Professor-Jesuit Christopher seiner. Already in g. has a new book about the solar spots. It was written by Johann Fabricius. In this book has been reported very important facts. It turned out that spot with time shifts to the visible Solar disk, it gradually shifted to the Western edge of the disc and then disappears behind him. After some time (about two weeks) the same spot will appear again, but on the opposite, the Eastern edge of the disc. So, we see the same Sun spot because that the Sun itself rotates. Thus, at the beginning of the XVII century, it was found that the Sun rotates on its axis.
Seiner discovered sunspots in g., and Galileo - the year before. But was the first to publish his discovery Fabricius. Between the scientists turned to a dispute about the nature of sunspots. Galileo and Fabricius felt that spot is an education in the Sun. Seiner defended the point of view that stain is not that other, as a projection of the planet in the solar disk. Some modern researchers believe that the point of view of Sanara determined by its position of Professor-Jesuit. Whether so it?
To find out the nature of sunspots could not be any of the three scientists. Had many more to learn about them by long-term observations before the nature of sunspots began to clear up. Seiner conducted observations of sunspots up to 1627 and the results of their observations described in volume work. Around the same time (162 6,) were involved in this work voluntarily modest and selfless German pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe. In modern terminology, watching the Sun was hobby Schwabe. Scientists call such enthusiasts by Amateur astronomers. Astronomy is very obliged to them. They are at their own expense and without any for remuneration gave the science is very much useful (sometimes essential) observational data. Indispensable because he carried these observations with amazing persistence and consistency. Since 1726 until his death Heinrich Schwabe, regardless of his being directed his telescope at the Sun and led in magazines detailed records of everything happening on the solar disk.
Only after 17 years of observations, Schwabe decided to publish their results. They consisted in the fact that the number of sunspots varies with time. Moreover, it is changing periodically. So, about every 10 years, the number of sunspots reaches a maximum, and then for about five years gradually reduced, reaching the smallest size. After this minimum number of spots again increases (over five years), and reaches its maximum.
For many years the results of the Schwabe-overlooked in the academic world even after their publication in 1743 Only because of the famous Alexander Humboldt these results became widely known. He described them in his book Cosmos", which was published after 8 years after the publication of the Year Schwabe. From this moment begins a new stage in the study of solar activity, which continues today. He invariably associated with the name of Rudolf wolf.
R. wolf was astronomer in Zurich Observatory. He became interested in the observations, Schwabe and open them cycles in the number of sunspots. In addition to these data, he took all the other data are observations of sunspots, which by that time already had. Moreover, he has also studied descriptions of sunspots which were committed in different Chronicles. The results of its analysis wolf published in 1892, the Main of them said that the number of sunspots visible on the Sun disk varies with a period of 11.1 years. It became obvious that the problem is not only interesting but also important. Became Director of the Zurich Observatory, R. wolf organized systematic observation (official and not an Amateur) for sun spots. The problem was really very important. Actually, it can be understood from the fact that in the annals and Chronicles periods, when the Sun is visible huge spots, coincided with dramatic changes in the habitual rhythm of the Earth. In these periods were amazing droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other disasters. They were accompanied by various epidemics and pandemics, claiming thousands of lives.
But wolf understood the urgency of the problem of sunspots not only on the basis of a study of Chronicles and annals. He naturally wanted to relate the events on the Sun and phenomena in nature, the surrounding Land area. This phenomena such as the Aurora, the illumination of the Earth's atmosphere at high latitudes and perturbations of the Earth's magnetic field.
R. wolf found that there is a connection between these phenomena and sun spots. In the last century, to wolf and after him, were established many depending on the number of sunspots. Thus, in 1844 scientist Gautier found that the temperature near the earth's surface, and the temperature of the water depend on the number of sunspots. Later, in 1872, it was shown Meldrum that the number of sunspots varies the frequency of storms, hurricanes and tornadoes, as well as rainfall. Malta in g. found that the number of sunspots connected in a certain way, and earthquakes, and singer in 1887 he published data on the relationship between the frequency of thunderstorms and the number of sunspots.
Scientists conducted intensive monitoring of flora and fauna. For communication with the number of sunspots was used statistical data on the growth of plants and livestock development. It turned out that with the number of sunspots is closely related to the amount of produced wines (established in 1878), the thickness of annual rings of trees (1892), the magnitude of fish catches and the reproducibility and migration of insects. It turned out that with the number of sunspots is due even the number of sudden deaths. This link was established in 1910 Were installed and other dependencies. To list them here, we will not. And from already been said it is clear that sun spots are a certain phenomenon, which affects many processes on the Earth and near-earth space.
Sun spots on the structure remind shell craters of. Their depth of about 1000-1500 km to the deepest part spot (bottom or the kernel) - the dark. It is called the shadow. Shadow surrounded by penumbra. The lower the temperature of the solar substance, so it is darker. The surface temperature of the Sun is equal to about 6000 degrees . In the Central part of the spots is less than 1,000-1,500 degrees . In the field of penumbra, that is, on the slopes of the crater, temperature is more than at the bottom spot, but less than around the spot. The size of the average spot is comparable with the size of our Cthe world summit.
We have shown average characteristics of sun spots. In fact spots are different. It was observed, for example, spots, the size of which were 15-20 times higher than the average above. Across, they reached 200 thousand km. Such diversity in Sunny spots associated with their development over time of their existence.
Solar spot can be from several hours to several months. The smallest spots called then, have a diameter equal to several hundred kilometers. But the largest group of sunspots, which observed the Sun in April 1977, occupied an area equal to 1500 billion square kilometers! In such an area could be put at least 100 earthly balls. Those spots, which was observed by our ancestors to the naked eye, were to have in diameter not less than 40 000 km Spots appear and disappear. It's time gradually turns into a spot, which increases. Then you receive fresh stain, and other spots of the group. Over time the main spots of the group gradually removed from each other. At some point the growth stage ends. The group of sunspots reaches the maximum size. This is followed by the collapse of the entire group and individual spots. This stage is always longer than the growth stage. Longest opposed to the breakup of the head spot. It keeps the correct form even after the disappearance of the tail and other spots of the group.
Most often spots appear in groups or at least pairs. There are large groups of spots. They are also great many small spots. But the main in the group are two spots. One of them is a head and pair him - tail. The head spot, which is in the head of the movement due to the rotation of the Sun. The head spot is more stable. If there is one spot, it means that paired him the spot had already decayed. It is always more koridoriuje.
Sun spots are formed not across the solar disk. In the polar regions of the Sun they almost no one was watching. In rare cases, they appeared at latitudes greater than 50 degrees. These spots were very small and unstable. Near the solar equator within a 10-degree strip spots also practically is not observed. Zone in the Sun where there are stains, were named "Royal". Sun spots - only "ground floor" of the active region, which covers the height of the solar atmosphere. What is "the whole building"?
Sunspots are surrounded by bright fibrous formations - photosfamily torches. They are brighter, as the temperature of the substance in them above the temperature of their environment. In areas photospheric torches there is quite a strong magnetic field and intensive movement of the substance along the lines of the field.
The torches in the photosphere continue to flare up "grounds", which penetrate not only the photosphere, but the solar chromosphere.
With increasing height, structure" flare sites expands. If the photosphere a diameter of approximately 700 km, on the border of the chromosphere with the crown he reaches 15 thousand kilometers
The flare site are born, grow, break up and disappear. This process is coordinated with the development of spots. With the appearance of sunspots brightness sites increases, especially near spots and pores. Grows in size. With the destruction of spots flare areas become less compact and contrast. They richley and spread wide. After a while they just bleed.
Frame of the building, as well as sun spots, is a magnetic field. It occurs first, and disappears last. It lasts for quite a long time after the flare Playground becomes invisible.
An essential, if not the most important part of the active region on the Sun is the solar flare. Their emergence is the culmination. Actually, flash on the Sun is a powerful nuclear explosions. So the first time they were called - eruptions, i.e. explosions. This name, of course, reflected the essence of what is happening in the active region.
Solar flare as strengthening of the wave Solar radiation, lasts only a few minutes. Very rare outbreaks last for tens of minutes. During the outbreak intensified radiation in almost all ranges: from hard x-rays up to a kilometer-long radio waves. This is amplified and visible radiation. The area of the flash by about 50% brighter than the stellar photosphere. Sometimes increases and more short-wave radiation of gamma-rays. The total area occupied by the flash can reach approximately 3600 million square kilometers, and sometimes more.
The explosion in the sun's atmosphere leads to the release of her in the interplanetary space of flows of charged particles. In other words, at this time, increasing corpuscular radiation of the Sun. Some emissions remain suspended in the sun's atmosphere . They can exist in a few minutes. They are called explosive prominences. There are quiet prominences (plasma clouds)that there are even a few months.
The interplanetary magnetic field
In addition to local magnetic fields in the active regions of the Sun, it, like Earth, has a total magnetic field. This field of hundreds or thousands of times smaller local fields, for example, fields of sunspots. It is only about 1 Gauss. It is only twice the Earth's magnetic field. However, the General magnetic field of the Sun cannot be neglected. It plays an important role in the movement of charged particles from the Sun to the Earth.
Power lines solar magnetic fields come from the Northern hemisphere and into the South. In the Equatorial plane of the power lines is very stretched in the direction from the Sun. Here is formed Equatorial neutral (in the sense of the magnetic field) of the current layer. It is not strictly in the Equatorial plane. The earth in its motion around the Sun goes so above, below a neutral current sheet of corrugated.
When Land is higher in its orbit lines of force directed from the Sun to the Earth. When the Earth passes below the current layer, they are directed to the Sun. Therefore, the orbit of the Earth is where the interplanetary magnetic field is directed alternately from the Sun to him. In other words, it has the sectoral structure. The sectors within which the interplanetary magnetic field is directed to the Sun, called negative and designated by the symbol "-". Sector with the magnetic field directed from the Sun, called the positive and indicate the sign of "+"
Sectoral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field remains practically unchanged for a long time. It "tough" is connected with the Sun. Can be observed for 3 to 6 sectors.
Rhythms Of The Sun
What changes rhythmically (cyclically) in the Sun?
It, first of all, the number of sunspots. , Schwabe found that the number of sunspots increases and decreases. At disposal, the Schwab were the data of observations for 17 years. Rudolf wolf, professional astronomer, later Director of the Zurich Observatory, gathered all the available information about the number of sunspots. He analyzed all the data of observations with telescopes. G. Galilei made the observation, since 1610 But they were not regular. R. wolf attracted to the analysis and information about the sun spots that were contained in the ancient Chronicles and other historical monuments.
R. wolf is not simply counted the number of all spots on the Sun. He took into account, as there are groups of sunspots and how many spots are single. He counted the number of groups of sunspots and multiply it by ten, and this number has increased the number of single spots. Could some number, which is called now the wolf number.
The number of spots that can be observed in the visible part of the Sun depends on the telescope from which you are watching. The stronger the telescope, the more visible spots on the Sun. Therefore, when calculating the number of sun spots, it should be taken into account.
When P. wolf analyzed the changes introduced to them the number of sunspots from year to year, it has received that the greatest number of sunspots is repeated through 11.1 years. But this is an average. In some cases, these periods are very different from this average value (within 7-17 years old) . Therefore it is necessary to speak not about the periodical, and about cyclic changes in solar activity. Therefore, there is an eleven-year cycle of solar activity. The duration can be either smaller or greater than 11 years.
There is a frequency not only in the number of sunspots, but also in their position. During the 11-year cycle of the position of sunspots varies as follows : At the beginning of the solar cycle, when sunspots are very few, they appear at the greatest distance from the equator, that is, at latitudes of about 30 degrees North and South of the solar equator. Then from year to year, they come closer and closer to the equator and toward the end of this cycle of sunspots reaches the lower latitudes. If this is to depict the figure in the form of a graph, the position of sunspots in the continuation of one 11-year solar cycle, form a figure resembling a butterfly. Interestingly, with the minimum number of sunspots spots of the old cycle appear at most lower latitudes (near the equator), and the spots of the new cycle - at the greatest distance from the equator. Precisely on this basis can very confidently identify the beginning of a new solar cycle.
Each solar 11-year cycle has a sequence number. Countdown the first 11-year cycle began with g. There is one frequency, which is manifested on the Earth and is also associated with sunspots. Each sunspot pierced by the magnetic field. In some spots the magnetic field is directed downward, NRUTR the Sun, while others up. The twin spots of uniform magnetic field. It goes from one spot and enters another.
When analyzed the magnetic fields of sunspots, it appeared that their direction is changing periodically. First, in the Northern and southern hemispheres direction opposite magnetic fields. Secondly, with the end of one cycle and the beginning of the next cycle all directions of the magnetic field reverses. Thus, everything is repeated through 11, 22 years later, that is in two 11-year solar cycle. Looking ahead, we say that this period is repeated many terrestrial processes.
Were opened and cycles with large periods. At the end of the last century was installed solar cycle lasting about 8 0 years. It was called a century. About its existence throughout our history testify and Chronicles. Approximately every 8 0-90 years solar activity was particularly high .
Rhythmic changes on Earth has allowed to open the solar rhythms of longer duration. But these rhythms is evidenced by the course of events in the near-earth space. Thus, changing the thickness of annual rings of long-lived trees (for example, Redwood) shows the 600-year cycle. He undoubtedly connected with the Sun. But the same cycle was installed and observations of comets. What can there be a connection? She has to understand you.
The more sunspots, the more of his activity, the more it throws into interplanetary space solar gas. The result is increasing glow of comets. So once 600 years of the comet was observed more often.
There are also more long solar cycles. Practically there is no doubt the existence of the solar cycle duration in 1800 years. This cycle was discovered by geological, geophysical and geographical data. In history there were periods when the sun's activity for a long time was at a very low level. One of these periods lasted from 1645 to 1716
For 70 years the Sun was formed less spots, than within only one year at the lowest activity of the Sun. The few spots that appeared, were formed only in the Equatorial zone. Nevertheless R. wolf found that in this period was manifested 11-year cycle of solar activity.
This period is now called the Maunder minimum, on behalf of the British researcher who studied it. Maunder wrote: "as in much of the flooded areas most towering region will raise their heads above the flood, and calm here, hill, tower or a tree there that can give shape configuration flooded plains years with spots, apparently, stand out as the crosses sunken curve spots". Terrestrial processes in this period proceeded not as before and after it.
Although at this time was not conducted regular instrumental observations of the Sun, data on solar activity there. And not only in the Chronicles. Their contains a radioactive isotope of carbon 14C. The essence of the matter consists in the following.
At high solar activity, interplanetary space is filled with more dense solar wind. At low solar activity, this density is less. To the Land continuously come from space charged particles to high energies. Because they come not from the Sun, and run through the whole Galaxy, called galactic cosmic rays. To get on the Ground, these rays must overcome interplanetary space. The higher the density of the solar wind, so to make it harder. Therefore, at high solar activity, the intensity of galactic cosmic rays on the Earth less. Under the influence of galactic cosmic rays increased the amount of radioactive carbon 14C.
What can explain the existence of this period? It turned out that some time before such a strong decline in solar activity, in 1642-1644, the Sun rotates faster than now. The increase in speed of rotation of the Sun around its axis happened abruptly, suddenly.
The sun rotates on its axis is very unusual. After all increased sharply angular speed of rotation of the Sun only near its equator. In high latitudes of the Northern and southern hemispheres of the Sun it continued to rotate at the same speed. This cannot occur with the Earth or another planet, as long as it remains one solid body. But the point is that the Sun is not a solid body. It is gas ball.
Murderously a minimum of solar activity is not the only one. Before it there was another almost the same period of low solar activity. He lasted a hundred years, from 1450 to 1550 B.C. this also experienced periods of very low solar activity, which were grouped near such years; 400, 750, 1400, 1850, 3300, BC. In addition to these periods of very low solar activity had taken place and the periods of very high solar activity. We also live in a time of very high solar activity. Because already for six of the 11-year cycles of solar activity maximums cycles is very high.
Periods of very high solar activity were before. For example, a period of very high solar activity took place in 1100-1250, Solar activity during this period was measured by determining the amount of radioactive carbon in the wood.
Since the changes in solar activity is manifested in many phenomena on the Earth and near-earth space, it is possible for these things to determine solar activity. English researcher J.. Seam gathered all possible information about Sunny spots. He used, and information about the rhythms of the earth's processes. So, J.. The seam was a change of solar activity for the period from 200 B.C. to the present day. During this time has passed 198 eleven-year cycles. About 600 years ago on the Earth there was a strong cold snap. Since that time, a green country Greenland (as evidenced by its name) gradually became the country is covered by ice.
Solar activity and the location of the planets
The question of questions solar activity is the cause. If there has not been such a distinct frequency (cycles) with different periods, it could reassure themselves that the process goes as separate explosive phases that it would be quite natural. But remember, as clearly changed every 11 years the system of magnetic vortices (bagels) in both hemispheres. 11 years of power lines in them looking in one direction, another 11 - into opposite side, and then repeated, that is all repeated in 22 years. And regular slipping sunspot with latitude 25 degrees 30o on latitude 8 degrees -12°! It happens very regularly and consistently. In latitude, which appear sun spots, we can confidently say, at what stage, the phase of the solar cycle we are in now. No wonder most accurately defines the duration of the solar 11-year cycle in the latitudinal shift of areas where sun spots are formed. So what decides technology of birth of sunspots, and hence the entire solar activity? By the way, to the above-mentioned extraordinary properties should be considered the fact that sun spots are formed at high latitudes, and only in two latitudinal zones between 30 degrees and 80 degrees North and South hemispheres of the Sun.
All these facts suggest that the formation of spots associated with the movement of the Sun. But to speak about the movement of the Sun separately from other bodies of the solar system cannot. After all, they are all tied together, no wonder they are "system".
More profoundly, it can be understood by a simpler example of the system of physical pendulum. Let us first have a physical pendulum, representing suspended by a thread (or terminal) sinker. If to shake this sinker and release, it will be some time to swing with a particular period. After some time due to the loss of kinetic energy to overcome the friction of the amplitude of oscillations will become smaller and smaller and finally - the pendulum will cease to sway. Further loss of energy to overcome the friction force will not consider: we need an example, close to the motion of the planets. Let's complicate the example. Take two of the pendulum with different lengths (that is equal to its own periods of oscillations). Then connect them suspensions rubber band or a spring. Will raskachaem one of them and will see how it will behave the second pendulum, which is initially at rest. Soon we'll see that he will gradually begin to sway: the energy part of the first pendulum through the gum is passed to the second and causes it to sway. But losing their energy, the first pendulum will continue oscillations all on a smaller scale. When he would give all his energy, he will stop. But at this time the second pendulum will fluctuate with maximum amplitude. It turns out that they changed places in the sense my hesitation. Then everything will repeat: the energy from the second pendulum will be through the existing links between them be transferred to the first. And so on without end (if there is no loss of energy to overcome friction).
The main conclusion from this ingenious experiment is that the fluctuations of the two pendulums, connected among themselves, are not independent and are oscillatory system, a single whole. To get close to our solar system, we need mental experiment to complicate. For example, take as much of the pendulum, as there are planets. Our them to the same place (the Sun) and start swinging from the beginning arbitrarily. Let us not forget all of them together relevant gum or springs. They really serve the forces of attraction between planets: each planet is attracted not only the Sun, but also every other planet. It is clear that United so oscillating pendulum is a single oscillatory system, none of the pendulum may not oscillate, regardless of the fluctuations of all other pendulums. All of this is absolutely true for our Solar system. If such oscillatory system consisting of a pendulum, does not lose energy to overcome the friction forces it through a certain time would come in that condition when the flowing energy through a connection will be established. The system will come in such a state, in which each pendulum will fluctuate with his constant frequency. Moreover, the relationship between these frequencies are always in all established oscillatory systems is very simple. This system is synchronous. When the system frequency has been established, they are in resonance. Calculations show that the Solar system had almost reached the resonant States. The frequency of planets and satellites differ by only half a percentage ideally resonance. In resonant vibrational system frequency oscillations are comparable. The frequency of oscillations of separate pendulum (planets) or equal to each other, or a multiple of, or are in a rational relationship. So, for example, doubled the frequency of Jupiter equal opatreni frequency of Saturn. This is true for the satellites. So, the sum of the frequencies of the satellite of Jupiter, IO, and twice the frequency of the satellite Ganymede equal to three times the frequency of the satellite in Europe.
Resonance mode of the Solar system is shown not only in a comparable state of frequencies. In addition to the resonance frequencies are resonant phase of this oscillatory system. How to understand it? All the planets in the Solar system revolve around the Sun in the same plane is the plane of the Ecliptic. Each planet, making one revolution around the Sun, goes through an angle of 360 degrees. If it passes half-turn, this angle is 180 degrees. This angle is traversed the planet, and is a phase, stage of oscillatory motion. But since this is not about different independent planets, and on the single oscillatory system, the phase of all the planets have to count from one and the same values. Because the planets revolve around the Sun, the countdown to associate with the Sun. For example, all of the planets are lined up on one line, but on different distances from the Sun. Here their phase zero. Let this direction is zero degrees longitude of the Sun, the so-called heliocentric longitude. After that all planets launched. Phase each of them began to grow in different ways, depending on the value of velocity of its circulation around the Sun. Exactly 179 years the situation will repeat itself: all the planets will once again line up. The last time such an event was recorded in 1982 now, it turns out that there are certain phases, i.e. areas which were also called resonance. These areas correspond solar longitudes. Than these phases significant? The fact that in these areas the processes on the Sun (it is also included in the uniform vibrational resonance system) is the most unstable. Therefore, at these latitudes in the solar atmosphere, the photosphere and the convective zone of the processes caused by instabilities should be developed more actively. How do actually? Scientists for many years to discuss the problem of active longitudes in the Sun. The essence of these longitude is that in certain longitudinal intervals sun spots (and hence the structure of the active area) are formed more often than other longitudes. On the active longitudes often formed active area, most of the explosion - a solar flare. Hence more is thrown out into interplanetary space, and hence to the Ground, charged particle and wave radiation. But it turned out that active longitude of the Sun, though very stable even for decades, yet do like the vibrational motion in that and other party. This means that the resonant phase, which correspond to the active longitudes in the Sun, change over time. Actually, it should be in oscillatory system, which still did not solutionservice.
Naturally, all on Earth are interested in, what changes will occur in the near and distant future in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, how will the weather, climate, productivity and so on and so on, This interest is not idle, it is natural, because all these conditions depends our life and the lives of our grandchildren. Man must learn to predict, to predict the occurrence of these periods, make better, more reliable to organize production, agriculture and the rest of his life. Finally, it is necessary to understand the past, as people's lives and everything that happened on our planet in the past centuries and millennia, were also determined by the conditions in the cosmos, the Sun and interplanetary space.
Thus, the question of resonance phases or active longitudes is purely speculative. He is closely associated with the possibility of forecasting the processes on the Sun, which have an impact on our lives.
What planet have an impact on the processes in the solar atmosphere, figured it out yet R. wolf. It was founded. For example, the duration of the solar cycle was equal to the orbital period of Jupiter. Research of influence of planets in solar activity was carried out actively to half of this century. Then some scientists started to give preference to search for the reasons of solar activity inside the Sun. The attitude to the influence of the planets in some measure become confused with astrology. Unfortunately, part of the short-sighted experts such an attitude to the problem remained still. They are ready to cross out the whole stage in the solution of this problem, which lasted several decades. So, Yu. I. Vitinsky wrote: "But all these works gave much more to the development of mathematics than to study solar activity". Undoubtedly, the rights of L. I. Miroshnichenko, saying that "is still not offered any mechanism vnutriorgannogo origin, explaining complex and multi-frequency quasi-periodic nature of solar activity". However, already in the 60-ies research of influence of planets in solar activity has started to develop. In addition to the above results on the study of the Solar system as resonant vibrational systems has been extensively studied the influence of the geometric position of the planets. The point here is the following. Each body has its centre of gravity. He has a clear physical sense. For example, if you hang body for the center of gravity, it will fail to rotate. If you have two bodies, it is possible to determine their common center of gravity. However, they should not move relative to each other. Of course, if their location is changed, is changing and the centre of gravity of these two tel. The same is true for the system of multiple bodies, for example, in the Solar system. The sun is much harder all the planets combined. It contains 99% of the total mass of the Solar system.
Maybe not everyone knows that there are also atmospheric tides. All they arise under the action of gravity forces of the Sun and moon. It is natural to expect that the Earth (and other planets) will have a tidal effect on the substance of the Sun. But since the mass of the Earth is small, and the result is not so noticeable, as under the action of solar tides on Earth. The tides caused by the planets, cause volatility of the stellar photosphere of the Sun just 1 cm in height. Of course, this is not enough to expect from these tides noticeable consequences. But tidal power can serve as a trigger mechanism. For this it does not necessarily have to be big. It should also be borne in mind that the higher above the photosphere, the scope of tidal oscillations of solar gas becomes more. At present, experts agree that tidal variations in solar gas caused by planets, should be taken into account in the description of solar activity and Solar physics in General.
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