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Viewings: 8581Disputes about what happened over 100 years ago, not subside until now. In human history there were many still have not understood phenomena of nature, which for a long time, was worried minds. One of such events was that received the name "Tunguska meteorite". Disputes about what it was, not subside, and so far, although it has been more than a hundred years. So what fell on the territory of Siberia 30 (17) June 1908?
The chronology of events is as follows. At dawn in 7.17 local time in the Krasnoyarsk region, in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska river about 70 km to the North-West of the village of Vanavara on the height of about 6 km explosion occurred (according to some - a series of explosions), the total capacity of which two thousand times higher than the atomic attack on Hiroshima - the power of the explosion was equal to 12.5 megaton. The blast was felt by the people at a distance of more than a thousand kilometers from the epicenter, and instruments recorded that the waves at least twice circled the globe. Newfangled barometers at meteorological stations in Cambridge and Petersville noted leap atmospheric pressure were recorded fluctuations of the magnetic field of the Earth, and from Siberia to the Western borders of Europe from 30 June to 2 July was observed wonderful white nights. In addition, the attention of scientists Berlin and Hamburg drew noctilucent clouds, usually resulting from the accumulation in dozens of kilometers above the Earth's surface particles of ice, abandoned there by the eruption of the volcano, but nothing like in the summer of 1908 in Eurasia occurred. Even then, it was noted that if the apparition four hours later, the Earth's rotation would have substituted under the powerful, all destroyed kick Petersburg.
Before the blast, witnesses who were at a distance of 200-300 km from the epicenter, was seen in the sky glowing object with a long fiery tail, and also noted the strange, literally deathly silence that occurred soon after the explosion: no bird sang, foliage not rustle did not become, and other familiar sound of taiga. The light of the clear morning suddenly faded, and all the subjects, including grass and the leaves become yellow, then orange, then red and maroon. For lunch, everything went black, and in the direction of the Podkamennaya Tunguska river was seen as if a solid silvery wall. All these strange phenomenon lasted about eight hours.
The result was a fallen taiga on the square in 1885 sq.km. And though killed many animals - thousand deer, but it's almost all sorrowful events - not counting one heart attack fatalities and multiple injuries from local residents. Long time was considered that such a small price to pay for a monstrous explosion was due to low population density in the area. This is partially true, but surprising and other: on the trail stretching across the epicenter and the Arctic ocean, took place reindeer caravans, but none of the caravan driver has not suffered. Curious as to why? This question sought an answer to numerous researchers, and the Evenks it became known that shortly before the outbreak of local elders and specially delegated shamans warned everyone about the need to avoid visits to the area, where "has to come God Agda", and urged people to leave their houses. Have been declared forbidden and held numerous trails nomadic herders, they were encouraged to move to the side. Shamans, apparently persuaded not all, young Evenk the hermit on lake Cheko, for example, remained in place, because he was able to observe at first mass Exodus from the area all living creatures and fish, and then he burst right at the stop. He almost miraculously survived in this nightmare. After the explosion, not too obedient, they continued to go to "the earth Agda" and it is thanks to them that modern science has learned that looked like an explosion and how different is the epicenter of the explosion immediately after the incident, as was altogether earth, raise the level of water in wetlands, shining stones and other miracles happened. By the way, about the same phenomena observed and residents of Hiroshima after the atomic strike. The question arises: where did the elders knew about the inevitability of the explosion (or falling cosmic body)?
The scientific community in those years proved remarkably incurious, then the event is forced to forget the war and the revolution, and only in 1921, academician Vladimir Vernadsky, founder of modern Earth Sciences, ordered Leonid Kulik, the enthusiast studies of meteorites, to undertake the necessary research. Kulik long to persuade it was not necessary, especially as he read the paper tear-off calendar from June 2, 1910, which gave him the editor of the journal "Peace" DocVerse. In the paper described the fall of the meteorite near patrol Filimonovo, which is 11 miles from Kansk. Kulik seeking admission at a people's Commissar of education Lunacharsky, gets the first subsidies and already in the beginning of September 1921 goes on a long journey.
Expedition has established, that the size of the meteorite were really huge, but to get to the pool Podkamennaya Tunguska river, where he had fallen, she failed. In the surrounding area were collected 233 meteorite fragment of the total mass of 233 kg Expedition worked quite well, until finally he came to the unfortunate passing point Filimonovo. The head of the station I. Ilinskij talked about the fall of the meteorite in 1908, however, indicated that fell he was not, and "somewhere on the junction of Lyalka". On Lalke Kulik sent even further, then another, then... Then it became clear that the "Filimonovskogo meteorite"firstly, you cannot call Filimonovskogo, secondly - this is not a simple meteorite, but something gigantic, the fall of what was observed in the vast territory of Siberia. In the end, the first expedition returned to Moscow, and not seeing the true place of falling.
The second expedition went to Siberia in six years, and on April 13, 1927, the Evenk Pavel Aksenov brought Kulik mount Shahrom, which offered a rather ugly view of the huge space, dotted with fallen charred trees. To the epicenter of scientists got only 30 may, where wildly surprised: there was no crater with dimensions corresponding to the power of the explosion. Instead, it was discovered relatively small wetland lake and a number of round indentations, is also filled with water, between which rose the dead charred trees, many of which were as if split by lightning. So Kulik suggested that a meteorite falling apart, before reaching the Earth's surface, and for twelve years conducted work on search of fragments.
What was found in 1930, was found was rather against the will Kulik than thanks to his efforts: Kulik was a supporter of the iron discipline and were forbidden to leave the tents. Hunter Konstantin Yankovsky advantage of the absence of the head of the camp, walked around the area and nearby, in the upper reaches of the churgim stream, found an amazing stone length of 2 m, width 1 m and a height of 80-90 cm, differing extraordinary porous structure and as if covered with light-yellow glaze. The hunter took pictures of his discovery, but the path to it is not marked, and soon was bitten by a Viper, long lain unconscious for several months recovered, then no matter how much walked through the forests, to find a wonderful stone lying not somewhere in the lowland, and on the hill, has already failed. Since then "stone Yankovsky" so no one could see, all studies were limited to the photo.
Kulik focuses in their search of the meteorite fragments drew on all wetlands funnel. While in Moscow vigorously argued, this funnel, or bogs, Kulik was active, draining his closest to the Meteor Zaimka funnel, which gave the name Sosnovskoe. Within a few months of daily efforts have chiselled through in the permafrost channel, flushed and... at the bottom perfectly round swamp found stump, undamaged whose roots go deep into the ground. And Kulik made a conclusion: if the crater was a powerful explosion, impact, nothing like this would have not survived. So, either it was not a meteorite or a meteorite fell not here, and should dig on the southern swamp. However, with funnel this is not so simple: another researcher, bolotohod Shumilova found that peat layers still corrupted - approximately in the same notorious 1908
But dig does not work - from expedition too little return, there are no results, and the funding stops. What only trick is not Kulik! First argues that the meteorite stone is considered first, and of Nickel and Nickel - strategic raw materials. As well as the meteorite was huge, and Nickel reserves are huge, and they need to find. Then decides to zasimovich in the taiga and "lost". In the press - with the filing of its attendant rises wave: do not let to die hungry scientist, lost in the taiga! Siberians in perplexity: its location is well known, but in the Moscow press call it "save"as Chelyuskintsev with ice. But the expedition failed't find anything: a single chip or stone or metal. Kulik volunteered to the front in 1942 has died in captivity from typhus contracted from infected red army soldiers, which are carefully cared. Death in his delirium he still encouraged to go on the Podkamennaya Tunguska.
Many years later his name would be called a crater on the back side of the moon, meteorite origin of which - unlike the Tungus is not in doubt. However, to the Tunguska meteorite are no longer looking for. The more went there expeditions, the greater grew among scientists belief that fell in the taiga not a meteorite. Then what? Was made more sunand hypotheses. Why not just imagined!.. And the descent of God Agda, and the flight of the fiery serpent preceding the repeat of the tragedy of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the detonation of several fireballs or clouds of mosquitoes more than 5 cubic km, and "unusual" earthquake, eruption paleovolcano, and the explosion of the comet's nucleus, and the collision with the Earth compact dust cloud, cometary tail or ice meteorite, and the transformation of the meteorite in the jets of debris and gas, and blast marsh gas when lightning strikes... After 1945, went more daring hypothesis: the annihilation of the meteorite from antimatter, falling splinter kernel planet Phaeton, disintegration of flying plates, caused by a meteor electric breakdown of the ionosphere on the Ground, the laser beam from space, Earth invasion of the ship with a snow man on Board, the fall of superdense piece of a White dwarf, etc.
But this is all speculation, and the texture is: Kulik expedition discovered a large number of small, about a millimeter in diameter, balls baked substance. The same bulbs planted later ruins of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rings of a tree that survived the edges destroyed taiga, talk about their normal development until 1908, then about the hard struggle for existence in the next thirty years and accelerated by 20-30% development after. The offspring of animals that survived a century ago catastrophe, bears signs of degeneration due to numerous mutations that inevitably arise as a result of nuclear radiation. As it turns out, "the Tunguska meteorite" - consequence nuclear explosion? But because the event occurred in the beginning of the twentieth century! Besides, in the area of the Tunguska catastrophe was observed, and other wonderful things. Improbable peace and change of color of the surrounding world of physics - theorists can explain only a disruption of normal flow of time, which may occur as a result of the work of the sources of antigravity. And about the change of color of the surrounding objects up to a full black on a clear day, repeatedly told the witnesses who observed UFOs in the daytime, and noticing that all around the object was shining silvery light, reminiscent of mercury. Moreover, when comparing the descriptions of eyewitnesses it seems that in the sky above the Tunguska met or collided, and can be, and more sites. But this hypothesis has not become a sensation, but the assumption Alexander Kazantsev literally blew up the scientific community. The writer suggested that in 1908 in the Earth's atmosphere invaded distress interplanetary spaceship with nuclear engine, the pilot which deliberately sent him away empty space and there's completed his mission, not exploding on the ground and in the air. The idea Kazantseva, made in 1946, was rejected by scientists despite the fact that the writer had consulted with such luminaries as Nobel laureate academician I.E. Tamm and academician L.D. Landau, and many times discussed your hypothesis successor Kulik - VA Sechinym. However, the hypothesis Kazantseva supported Professor Aleksey Zolotov, academician Sergey Korolyov in 1960, organized an expedition to the site of the Tunguska catastrophe, hoping to find fragments of exploded alien spacecraft and explore them. In this expedition was and future cosmonaut Georgy Grechko, but the members of this expedition is not found in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska river or bite materials of extraterrestrial origin.
Version Kazantseva, of course, fantastic, but relies not on the bare imagination. For example, Sytin said that in the epicenter near the place of the alleged bomb all the trees were standing at the root, and have been around a fallen radially. Sytin, however, believed that in the air there was no explosion, but Kazantsev of health said that so far not found any meteorite. Kulik suggested that a meteorite had drowned in the swamp, breaking through the layer of permafrost. "But when in that place drilled ice - wrote Kazantsev, there broke from the water fountain. If a meteorite struck the permafrost - the pressure would have fallen!
. .. Only a nuclear explosion can explain the unprecedented event. How else to explain the sound that was heard thousands of miles away? Only in the center at the root remained forest, this could only happen if the explosion occurred above ground". Academician Tamm rightly believed that a nuclear explosion can only be artificial. But at that time, the mankind did not know of nuclear secrets. So if the explosion was "artificial, it is theoretically possible to assume, - wrote Kazantsev, is that someone, some genius in the house or hut gathered nuclear device?" Tamm strongly objected: "This is impossible! This is utter nonsense..." Hence, a nuclear explosion? Exploded something done artificially, but not on Earth, and not man. And where and who?"
It is now a question like any first-grader will answer "aliens blame", and in 1946, even the term "UFO" did not exist, the first boom in the press regarding the alien is still ahead, he will begin only in 1947.
Hypothesis Kazantseva could, in principle, disappear without a trace subsequently, if not for one "but": there was a total mess with the true direction of flight of the Tunguska body. Experts in ballistics, studied the picture of the fall forest, clearly stated that before the explosion body slowly (!) he did not fly from the top down and from the East to the West. The same direction was quoted witnesses living to the East of lake Baikal. However, more curious: thousands of people to the West of lake Baikal argued that the body was flying from South to North. This inconsistency in the testimony made researcher Figes to assume that over Tunguska was flying UFO, made before the explosion a couple of steep turns. And indeed, among many witnesses were those who argued that the flying body will really change the trajectory, and a few people saw how it turned from over Baikal. However, descriptions of objects were different, which allowed engines to make a conclusion about the two objects. Ufologist Aleksey Zolotov believed that two UFOs, one from the South, the other East, has arrived at a point where... exploded. Or faced? Or was made interception one machine to the other?
Apparently, explosion and destruction UFO still not occurred, otherwise probably a couple of his pieces of Korolev for the study would have received. However, in 1985 on the river vashka was found a fragment of a spherical shell, whose research has confirmed its artificial origin: to reproduce material from which it was made, is not possible with the most modern technologies. There is one "but": from Vashka to Tunguska more than 3 thousand km! The explosion could really throw a small amount of debris that distance, but not to declare now any finding on vast Russian land chip it Tungus UFO? According to the information of Stringfield, for example, on Earth before 1980, there were at least 28 disasters UFO.
Starting from the 60-70s, the study of the Tunguska phenomenon occupied the minds of not only Amateur ufologists, but serious scientists. 1988 took an official ban on any mention of UFOs in the press. The Tunguska started to explore the expedition, one of the most fruitful was the expedition went to the taiga in July-August 1996, According to the results of this expedition, and previously known facts, the picture of what happened in June 1908, is as follows. In the atmosphere of the planet invaded a body of synthetic or natural origin with a very unusual physical, energy and spatial-temporal properties. Alien ship whether it was or other artificial body, but it is clear that it could not be a usual comet, meteor or something like that. The object was approximately the size from a few tens of meters to kilometers, in flight brightly shone, leaving behind a smoke and doing some maneuvers. When approaching the southern Swamp (the future of the epicenter) object slowed and possibly formed around him a kind of electromagnetic clot or twitched in the local area around itself the characteristics of space-time. For these and other reasons, but to the ground began to beat hundreds of powerful lightning, the intensity of impacts are increased, then it faded. Most likely even to the maximum of these attacks the body in the result of any internal reaction (nuclear, thermonuclear explosion or other phenomena with the formation of a sharp shock wave) formed a powerful air wave. Only after the first wave threw the main part of the trees and the earth was formed radiation fall, followed weaker, but numerous explosions and other processes causing air waves, which threw the remaining stand of trees, hiding the original picture of the fall. As a result of these explosions body and did described by eyewitnesses maneuvers, not fully razrushivshij.
Next Tunguska object some not understood even by way left radioactive fallout, as well as the places with the changed tempo physical time. (We found only three places: in the South region of the southern Marshes, on the Northern slope of the Cascade mountains and West of the falls Churgim). Hence mutations representatives of the animal world, and the mental and physical effects on people and so this Is a rough picture of what happened, modeled on the computer. However, that was actually one can only assume that hypotheses much. To cite only one that tries to explain all known facts. A huge UFO, ship- uterus"flew into the Earth's atmosphere, causing a tremendous crash. If you remember the silence of flights of other observed UFOs, it probably was an emergency descent. At an altitude of 5 km aliens are deployed to 90 degrees in space (eliminated accident? Change your mind to sit down, not finding a suitable landing site of taiga and swamps?) and on "180 degrees" in time, i.e. change the direction of travel time on the opposite. Huge UFO slowly to the sound of roaring engines, razoraceveda and, passing through the time barrier, as well as capable of piercing sound barrier aircraft, creates around itself a blast wave. Its engines, which worked until the UFO passed through "zero-time", put all of its huge energy in an instant. Appeared monstrous explosion, pushed trees, lit taiga, dielectrically the air and caused a cascade of discharges, alternating magnetization of rocks, formation of radioactive isotopes in soil, mutations of living organisms, etc. the Ship began to speed up and went out of the atmosphere. Now is the time for the earth and for the UFO was different and people first saw the object in the upper atmosphere, then lower and lower, then I heard a distant explosion. It was like a film, scrolled to the end. Hence the illusion drop something into the taiga.
As for appearance, that, according to theoretical physicists, UFOs, as any object that is in a different time, should change visible form and color. This was observed. And what explains the mysterious glow of the atmosphere after the event? Apparently, in the upper layers of the atmosphere are trapped particles waste matter or any accidental releases. And glowing particles of the substance by inertia has moved on several days in advance, annihilating with rarefied air at altitudes above 100 km In principle, no physical law does not deny such a maneuver. Then when typing speed and "help" himself speed of rotation of the Earth, as do the modern missiles, ship and made strange maneuvers, then flying to the North, then to the West. Here dawn is yet to come, so the witnesses was less. And the higher up the ship above the Ground, the less luminous emissions were left behind, so the area of the white nights was like a strongly extended wedge or ' butterfly" with the wide end of Baikal and acute in the Atlantic. By the way, the form of this ' butterfly" very much resembles an elongated ' butterfly" Tunguska fall.
In principle, this, at first glance, fantastic hypothesis explains all the facts that are individually to explain. However, matters become even bigger, but to take in his mind the possibility of the existence of alien ships mankind does not. At least, officially. In any case, the place of the Tunguska phenomenon still attracts many researchers. In the nearby village of Vanavara even created and operates the Museum of the Tunguska meteorite, but fifteen years ago on the site of the explosion was organized by the reserve, which in the future will be transformed into Russia's first scientific research of the reserve. Unfortunately, regular fires and decay of the old fallen trees, emergence of new seedlings leads to the fact that traces t CSOs the events of June 1908, there are less and less every year. That's why in front of expeditions held in the summer of 1996, was including set this goal: take the preserved samples of soil, flora and fauna, sawed trees and save them in a special capsule in an argon atmosphere for future researchers. The conservation work place accident and continues at the present time.
P.S. According to unofficial sources close to the Federal security service of Russia, the results of the expedition 1996 in print were not fully exploited. Sources claim that the expedition found several traces of distress alien ship in the form of fragments of the shell, as well as chemical footprints in the deeper layers of the soil, roughly corresponding to the marks on the soil on the earth's space launch after launch space earthly ships. And the layers correspond to the same 1908...
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