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Александрийский маякOnly one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient world had not only architectural elegance, but also practical function: the lighthouse of Alexandria. He guaranteed for seafarers safe return to Grand Harbour. In addition, it was the tallest building on Earth.

Place:

The ancient island of Pharos. Today it is a Cape in the city of Alexandria in Egypt.

History:

After the conquest of Egypt in 332 BC, Alexander the great decided to found a new capital. Thus arose Alexandria.

The position of the new city was liberals carefully. Instead base it on the Nile Delta, was selected area located twenty miles to the West, to silt and mud, brought by the river, did not litter the city harbour. The South of the city ends lake Mareotis. Once created the channel between lake and the Nile, the city had two harbours, one for the movement op Nile, and the other for the Mediterranean sea trade. Both the harbour had to remain pure.

Alexander died about 323 BC, the city was completed by Ptolemy I, under whose reign Alexandria has achieved wealth and prosperity.

Many amazing and wonderful it was in this city. Here was the famous Moscow Museum (Museum of the temple of the muses), which housed an astronomical Observatory, a school, anatomical theatre, workshops. At different times in Museyon lived and worked many brilliant Greek scientists - the Creator of the geometry of Euclid, pioneer surgery Herophilus. There were educated and worked Archimedes. Worked here for many years a wonderful mechanic Heron, who built the first machines and wrote about them fascinating book Theatre machines.

With the development of shipping, Maritime trade more acutely felt the need lighthouse, which among underwater rocks and shoals would indicate courts safe way in Alexandria Harbor. On the Eastern tip of the island of Pharos, lying in Morena a distance of 7 stages (1290 m) from Alexandria, was built in the Mediterranean lighthouse, which has borne the name of the island. Connection name lighthouse with its function was so strong that the word "Faros" stanol the root for the word "Mayak" in many languages - French, Italian, Spanish and Romanian.

The height of the lighthouse is 135 m, its light was visible on the insistence of 60 km (according to other evidence to 100 km). The bottom part was a tetrahedral prism 60-meter height with a square base, the length of which was $ 30m. In the inner rooms were kept various equipment and flat roof, decorated in the corners of the huge statues of Triton, was the basis of the middle part. It was a 40 - meter high octagonal prism tower, faced with white marble. The top (third) part of the lighthouse was built in the form of cylindrical colonnade - 8 columns carried a dome, crowned with a 7 - meter high bronze figure of the Lord of the seas Poseidon. Light source served steady big fire. How was achieved brightness and range of glow still not installed. According to one version, this effect was achieved with the help of huge mirrors of polished bronze and glass. On the other - due to the use of transparent polished stones - lenses.

All who saw the lighthouse, enthralled made of gilded bronze tall slender female figures. From time to time these motionless figure suddenly came to life. This was not just a statue, and sophisticated machines. One showed the power of the wind and sea waves, moving large gold arrow on a huge blue dials. Other, turning, pointed out the direction of the wind, or followed by hands over the movement of the sun and moon. Women machines were installed and near large Water-clock - clepsydra. They beat Coca. And in the fog and storm blew in curved Golden horn was another beautiful woman, warn the sailors on hazardous close location of sandbars and underwater rocks.

History has preserved the name of the Creator of the Pharos lighthouse: on one of the plates, scientists have discovered an inscription “sotret, the son of DeStefano, dedicated to the gods-rescuers for the sake of the seas”. The inscription is preserved thanks to the resourcefulness of the architect he had to cover it with a layer of plaster, on which was written the name of the ruler of Egypt.

In the dazzling brilliance of the lighthouse, as the focus was concentrated all the wisdom, the power of thought and depth knowledge of the great scientists of Museyon. But a strong earthquake in may 1100 he was almost totally destroyed. In the middle ages remains of the podium lighthouse of Alexandria was built in the Turkish fortress Kite Bay. She now turned into Egyptian military Fort. So to get to the remnants of the lighthouse is impossible even researchers.
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