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Надписи на камняхThe ancient Greeks, who founded in the VI century BC on the Northern Black sea coast a lot of cities have introduced a completely new here to this earth customs and traditions. Among many of them are of special interest gravestones with inscriptions. Today we will talk about Olvia and commemorative signs (the Dnieper-bug Liman, Nikolaev region).

Instead of Foreword

Let's start with the fact that scientists still at the beginning of the XX century were struck finds jade axes in the Northern black sea earth, axes, virtually identical to those found archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann in the legendary Troy. To the second Millennium BC includes a bronze double axes, the so-called "Labrys", from the name of which is the famous "labyrinth". They are actually quite close to Olbia places - on the left Bank of the river In the rumble. Surprisingly high culture managed to create the ancient Greeks actually in the single space of the Mediterranean and black sea coast. And this culture many times acted as the healing power of the Renaissance of the human spirit.

What is covered by one only the Italian Renaissance? What's there to say, the ancient Greek civilization induced almost the whole spiritual life of Europe. Sometimes we do not even think about everyday use, which came to us from ancient Greece words and concepts: chaos (gas), Moon, Medusa, space, Chronos and Helios, giants and titans, Chimera and Echidna, the Achilles ' heel and the Procrustean bed of a Sisyphean task, the Augean stables and much, much more. But it's about something else.

Respect of the Greeks to the dead, preservation of the memory about them, sometimes the deification in the family or the family of the individual, something glorified ancestors contributed to the device, large necropolis near cities. From a very early time they put over the graves of different monuments. Every tombstone, regardless of its nature and form, was a kind of sign of the prohibition to destroy or to desecrate the grave. Most often it was the name of the deceased. Not without reason in the ancient Greek name of the gravestones - Mama is and memory, and the monument.

Masterpieces and ritual

All the fine art of that time was surprisingly mundane. Greek masters, translating into the language of art are familiar with childhood myths or their literary processing, was looking for models for his works in life. They gave gods and heroes appearance, corresponding to the ideal of beauty that time, portrayed them in garments of his contemporaries, dressed goddesses of fine jewelry. Therefore, Greek art reveals to us along with philosophical, religious and spiritual ideals, and also the life of its era. Strange as it may seem, but these principles have touched and the afterlife. More precisely, monuments to the deceased.

Of all the black sea cities of the ancient epitaphs found by archaeologists in the Borysfen (Berezansky settlement) and Olbia. However, from them survived only small fragments on limestone stelae. But they show that already in the middle of the VI century B.C. the Greeks Lower bug has carved on them not only a relief image, but also poetic inscriptions in order to perpetuate the images of their relatives, to keep the memory about them and to give a visual representation of the relationship of art, poetry, ritual burial, and visit the grave, and, in General, religious-philosophical sense - about the hereafter and of the fragility of life on earth.

Rare monument, found on the territory of Ukraine, not only Olvia, but all ancient Greek funeral sculpture is a stele of Leaks, as is listed on it, "son Maldagora". It refers to 500-490 BC and now, nearly a hundred years is stored in Kherson Museum. This is one of the monuments, found in the Northern black sea coast, which attracted the attention of many researchers. And here's why... Until now in the scientific literature there is no single answer to the question, who is depicted on the stele, how accurate interpretation of the inscriptions, when and where it was made, who really was Leaks, whose name is associated with the unique monument of art. This is largely due to the fact that the monument has survived only in fragments.

Once monument was a narrow thin slab carved from white coarse-grained marble. It was found in the beginning of the last century on the territory of Olvia necropolis located under the buildings of modern Kherson village parutyne. On one side there is a naked young man with a stick in his hand, on the second - the young man in profile with a Cup and a boom. On the narrow sides of the stele researchers found carved inscriptions. However, they, like reliefs, partially preserved, which ultimately led to various reconstructions and sometimes mysterious interpretations.

Lost together

For the first time the inscriptions on the stele were published in 1915
"I, Leaks of Salpagarov, dedicated to you, the Giver of production, this stele away from the city (Olyvia), in the Scythian land."
However, shortly after the publication presents the restoration provoked a debate in the scientific literature. Most scientists, including modern, reasonably believe that it is a grave stele with a poetic epitaph. The last known its reconstruction belongs to the famous scientist Yu G, Vinogradov:

"The monument of valor I say that away, for the Fatherland life giving, is the son of Maldagora Leaks".
Such recovery is much closer to that text that can be learned from the few remaining words on the stele. Accordingly they can confidently say only that the monument belongs to Leaks, son Maldagora, lost, and probably buried away from the city. In this regard, many researchers reasonably believe that the stele was installed on the grave of Leaks, and over the Cenotaph (a symbolic grave). And if so, Looks died so far from Olbia that his relatives have not been able to deliver his body for a proper burial. Of no less interest and images on both sides of the monument is on the main side presents the young warrior with a spear in his helmet as an embodiment of the personality of Leaks, and on the other hand - the Amazon in a nice suit.

Among numerous monuments of the ancient Greek sculptures from the same, or close to it in the story and location so different shapes, no! We can rightly say that it is a unique masterpiece made, most likely, Miletus sculptor. The uniqueness is the figure of the Archer on one side of the stele and Greek boys on the other, which are United by a common sense.
This is the master and the servant who buried in the same grave, because perished. But how is that possible? And for what merits servant buried in the same grave with the owner, and moreover, is depicted on the tombstone?

Interpretation scholars

If at one end of the stele is well preserved the name of the deceased owner, inscriptions on the other end came only five letters, which are the two endings of words. It is not excluded that at the second end of a stele was modest, but still the name squire-servants. On Olvia stele it is relevant, and therefore shorter and as it reduced compared to the main character of the image of the Archer, is the main connecting link between them, is the subordination of one elevation to another, plot of communication between them.

, The craftsman who made the stele, undoubtedly knew the story of the death of Leaks. It was intended only to this. Its uniqueness, in turn, indicates some extraordinary events in the life of Leaks and Olbia.

. However, only on the basis of fragments considered inscriptions and reliefs are not clearly and unambiguously established that in fact is Leox how he died and where he was overtaken by death. Each researcher of this monument, which Ukraine can be proud of, is our own perception of it.

Accordingly, the monument and a name as Leaks, especially his father Maldagora more or less confident we can say that he came from an aristocratic family of Miletus and according to their social rank played an important role in public life Olvia of the policy.

It seems that Leaks died away from Olbia, fulfilling the mission of the messenger to the nomadic Scythians, or Scythian farmers forest-Steppe, with whom the Greeks maintained particularly close relationship in the VI - the beginning of the V century B.C. Such "diplomatic" version suggested, on the basis of only one detail... the Scientists drew attention to the fact that the staff of the so-called spear's more like a staff. Spear usually portrayed as thin straight identical thickness over the entire length of the stick, the stick over it looks knotty, poorly treated. Just this shows the stick at the torso of naked boys on the stele.

On this basis, he represents, is probably not a warrior, as a citizen, sent with peaceful goals accompanied by guarding his servants, but not simple orderly, and squire, security guard, a guide and interpreter for some of the tribe, where for some unknown reason and was overtaken by death.

Few rarities

Much better preserved three poetic epitaph later time. However, unlike monument Leaks they in one case there are not accompanied by images, in two other reliefs almost completely destroyed.
Four-line inscription of the first half of the VI century BC carved on a small marble tile-box in neggroBIE. It is a short epitaph, folded in the amount of elegiac disticha:

Oh, Apirat, And decreased child!
Over the grave stele
The monument is,
Although early in the grave you.

Although this verse and very brief, but it pronounced "melancholy" - sadness and sorrow sooner dead son, so generally peculiar to ancient Greek inscriptions. Strangely, that such monuments in Olbia were, obviously, rare and were mainly the most educated citizens who could afford to put a monument with an epitaph even to the dead child.

Second epitaph is situated on a small marble slab under the remnants of relief image, which guessed popular in funerary sculpture stage, so-called funeral feast. Reclining on a bed a man and sitting in a chair beside him a woman usually holding vessels with drinks, standing next to a table with various dishes and a boy - servant, serving a married couple.

The verses in more detail than in the first epitaph, tell about the deceased:
"Cry, stele, about my death. Father Aristarchus was left all alone. Laraneda, barely touched the age of valor. At the age of seven I died".

Epitaph does not make specific representations nor about his father, or his daughter, except in common: there real names, age of the deceased girl, all last words are subordinated to the functional purpose of the monument, designed by verbal art to cause deep sorrow that already brings it closer to poetry much more than other Olvia and epigrams.
Unlike "talking" stelae of Leaks, epitaphs Partenite the girl tells about himself and calls his monument "to proclaim" about her and her death. Not father grieves for Partenite, and the daughter of the experiences that left him "all alone". However veiled form through her tear depression looms and sorrow Aristarchus.

Paleographic characteristics labels, use it Doric dialect name Partenid, which was derived from the cult of the name of Artemis Parthenos - Supreme goddess of Tauric Chersonesos, indicate that Aristarchus was a native of this city, perhaps, by the merchant. In the III century BC in Olbia living a lot of the Chersonesites, they were given privileges in trade and other activities. It is therefore possible that the seven-year Partenid was the daughter of a rich merchant, who lived in Olbia. The experience of the girls about his solitude - direct testimony that she grew up without a mother.

And the epitaph of Picrate, and the epitaph Partenite disclose fully the love of the residents of Olbia to their children. Often it is believed that the ancient Greeks were not happy about the birth of daughters, education and the device which demanded more money and concerns. Married, they leave home.
However, the epitaph Partenite, like many epitaphs Bosporus suggest otherwise. Rich gravestones with inscriptions were set over the graves and sons and daughters.

Mirador from Olbia

Only one Olvia epitaph connected with the person of the old man:
"This grave, o wanderer, embodies the dead man, come down to all the usual edge of life. His birthplace was the town of Olbia in Scythia, and the name of the mortal consists of words fate and gift. It was a dear old man, going into appointed rock the house of Hades, left two children. It is equally desirable and people, and immortal, divine, went in the house pious".
Unlike previous epitaphs here right is not specified the name of the deceased, but it is revealed by word games and poetic generics names for mortals, composed of the words Moira - destiny and Dora - the gift, which ultimately means Mirador.
And one more detail: first there is the appeal to some stranger.

In the II - I century BC, and this time can be dated inscription, - already has become a tradition appeals to travelers in verse epitaphs. Cemeteries were a kind of a visiting card of ancient cities. Laid on him roads lead to their goal. Tombstones often stood on the road to a passer-by would stop to read the label and see the sculpture. The use of dialogue forms contributed vivacity and expressiveness of the poem, create a sense of direct communication with the deceased, which would be replaced his monument.

Epitaph Mirador consists of two parts. The first one sounds appeal to the Wayfarer, and he also briefly describes simple Olvia citizen, obviously nothing special not famous, but respected in Olbia and raised two children. In the second, more emotionally, sounds request to the divine to determine its "in the abode of the pious"because it is equally showed respect for the people and the immortal gods. Olvia unnamed poet in this small epitaph was able to reveal the age of the deceased ("dear old man"), his family status ("left two children"), the attitude of residents of the city, its rare name and origin.

This is the only epigraphic document, stating that the city (policy) Olbia is in Scythia, but this does not mean that the city belonged to the Scythians. In the view of the Hellenes from ancient times Alkaios and GE-Katia Miletus this understanding of the geographical location of the ancient city has become a tradition. Because under Scythia or Scythian land they meant not the state of the Scythians, and the vast lands from the Danube to the don, inhabited by different tribes.

The words "the Motherland of the policy Olbia in Scythia" reported full settlement, they do not even hint at some humiliating the recognition of such origin, in the distant barbaric land on the outskirts of the ancient world. Here, of course, particular emphasis is placed on "policy Olbia", which was so proud of its citizens from the time of relocation. Author epitaphs expressed his own expressive-emotional mood and Outlook. It was the fact that man must meet live life to get after death a new life among the godly. Olvia poet has brought little episode about the death of an elderly man to the General regularities and philosophical generalization, about life and death is inevitable for people "normal all faye life" and the immortality of the gods.


Even the inscriptions on ancient stones that reached our time, give the idea that in Olbia tried somehow to preserve the memory of their relatives. That's why there are a tradition passed on from generation to generation, from one civilization to another. All as now - local poets his poems helped to comfort those who mourn for the deceased, and stone carvers embodied projects relatives of the dead on perpetuation the memory of loved ones.

In III century ad Olvia strikes deep political and economic crisis, which coincided with the onset of the barbarians at Rome. By experiencing serious difficulties in the defense of the Danube provinces from the barbarians, the Romans take the difficult decision to withdraw troops from Olbia and leave it to the mercy of fate. In this century, the city loses the value of antique center and begin the painful process of withering...

Author: Cribosa
Source: "Interesting newspaper. Riddles civilization" №18, 2012
Com-Eva: 0 Author: admin
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