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Viewings: 602720 years ago, the Pope has publicly repented of the condemnation of Galileo by the Inquisition Galilee and returned him to the status of a faithful son of the Catholic Church. Does the Church have always been at odds with science, and it really is incompatible faith and knowledge, as approved now? In what became "grim" Inquisition? And what role was played in this process over the Galileo?
on 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II in a statement, reported to the world that the decision of the Inquisition in the case of Galileo Galileo in 1633 was a mistake. The speech of the Pope was not spontaneous - it was preceded by many years of preparatory work of the special Commission, formed immediately after his election as Pope in 1979. However, this body worked only until 1981, and sensational rehabilitation was announced after another 11 years.
Although, by and large, especially to investigate in the old inquisitorial fact, there was nothing. Yes, the theory of?? heliocentrism, originating from the fact that in the center of the Universe is not Earth, but the Sun was expressed in the works of Nicolaus Copernicus, prohibited by Rome in 1616 and supported by Galileo - what a scientist and was condemned spiritual Tribunal. But this theory was officially permitted St. The throne at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries.
Apparently, in the late Pope's verdict at the end of the century XX-th played the key role in the fight of the Vatican with the world communism. John Paul II, the former head of Polish Catholics, hated this operation every fiber of my soul and even declared against him "crusade" - of course, in the spiritual sense.
Meanwhile, the Galileo was one of the major arguments in atheistic criticism of the Church, and not only in the Soviet Union. So, admit Dad error with the condemnation of the great scientist few years earlier - and powerful advocacy machine Communist party throughout "Soviet bloc" at full speed would've gotten this recognition as an irrefutable proof of "religious bigotry and hostility to science dense churchmen". And when the Union gone - then the repentance of Rome to the crime 360 years ago, without much fuss. It only raised the shares of St. The throne in the eyes of the public in terms of liberalization of its orders and the ability to change in modern conditions.
Actually, of course, around the trial of the famous scientist piled many myths. Defenders of the Church, including that of the Orthodox environment, as for example, the famous missionary and theologian, archdeacon Andrey Kuraev, rests on a separate little known aspects of this court with the purpose to rehabilitate the then Catholicism.
For example, they pay attention to the fact that Galileo much of the process was conducted in a stinking dark dungeons of the Inquisition, and comfortable villas their senior friends and disciples, including the then-Pope urban VIII. What the Inquisition on the direct orders of the Pope "replace" accusation in sympathy scientist to atomism, which, after the Council of Trent the middle of the XVI century was considered deadly heresy because they are incompatible with Catholic doctrine of the Sacrament, on a much less dangerous consequences heresy of?? heliocentrism. Thanks to this, the defendant went not to the fire - and, again, Villa under house arrest. Yes, and condemned him for heresy, but only for suspicion in it, however, demanded a renunciation of seditious views.
We need to consider that the rejection of the Church of the new astronomical system was based not on any dogmatic retrograde, and the concern for the spiritual welfare of his flock. Since XVI-XVII centuries is the sunset of humanism with its Titanic adventure, a quest for beauty, the extolling of man as the crown of creation, designed to achieve divinity in force created in the image of God on Earth. Instead, came the intensity conventional religiosity, pessimism and fear. During this period there was observed the most bloody religious wars, while only one of them, Thirty years, in Germany have died from fighting, famine, disease, 80 percent of its population. And yet many times has increased the number of burning witches and sorcerers - and condemned them to death not inquisitors, and the usual city judges. And the Protestants differed little in their cruelty against Catholics.
In such circumstances, the official recognition of the heliocentric system could have a negative effect on the General, and so pessimistic worldview of many believers. If before they even heard that live in the center of the universe that God created exclusively for people in the new system, the Earth appeared just a little speck in a vast Universe, and man was nissodisfa with the status of the crown of creation to normal "bug".
However, all these circumstances did not abolish the main fact - the trial of Galileo was a gross interference in the freedom of human thought (by the way, given by God himself!) and scientific disputes. Actually, if the Inquisition as the Institute remained in their formal framework " nothing terrible would have happened. Because its tribunals only to find out whether a particular doctrine and divided its people can be considered as complying with Catholic doctrine. Unfortunately, the negative answer to this question inevitably led to the death sentence the heretic - already by the secular court. That, however, was done with the knowledge and even according to the commandment of the Church.
In General, the mere Christianity, against atheistic myths, not showing some doctrinal aversion to knowledge. Although it does above him love: "Knowledge nadoway - but love builds up". But, for example, a reputable Christian apologist II-III centuries Clement of Alexandria wrote: "For the son of God there is nothing incomprehensible. Therefore, there is nothing and that it would be impossible to know. Can we imagine that The one Who out of love for humanity has undergone so much suffering, at least one item was excluded from the area that is subject to human understanding?".
If you carefully look at the device of Byzantium, striking her tremendous achievements in economy, agriculture, industry, medicine, military Affairs. Suffice it to say that the secret "Greek fire", the medieval Napalm, the main weapon of the Byzantine fleet, not fully revealed until now.
The same in relation to science it is possible to say and about the Roman Church. Majestic palaces and buildings, cobbled streets, art masterpieces are not meeting the myths about "ignorant medieval". As real "research institutes" and the universities, which was under the patronage of the Vatican, which was created by the best scientists of that time. Well, that individual scientific disputes could be solved by accusations of heresy - and in the Soviet Union Cybernetics and genetics also persecuted as "the sales girls imperialism". That, however, does not mean the absence of Soviet science, which helped to launch the first artificial satellite of the Earth, and to send a man into space.
Just the key difference of the Orthodox and Catholic model was the attitude to power. In the first case is the recognition of spiritual and secular authorities, even usually, the first sooner or later turned out to be under the yoke of the second, was named "Caesaropapism". In the framework of the monarchs acted at the decision of religious disputes in a more efficient, relying primarily on the needs of the state. Therefore in Byzantium, despite the fact that it is often shaken heresy, bonfires with heretics is not practically glowed.
But in the Catholic world, the Pope initially claimed both secular power is referred to as the term "papocaesarism". Hence the need to act secular same management techniques, often very far from institutions of Christian love.
Of course, the current Catholicism efforts thirsty full power of European monarchs and politicians are already in the end of XIX century was deprived of state functions. Therefore, Rome has now there is no need to interfere with that in disputes astronomers of the XVII century - but in the confrontation of any other scientific theories. And the Inquisition, renamed the Congregation for the Doctrine of the faith, now, what is this institution was originally founded control of purity of the faith.
In fact, it sometimes seems that the yoke of guilt for the crimes of their predecessors often pushes the Congregation on very liberal actions, poorly compatible even simple logic. For example, in 1992 the Pope apologized for not only Galileo - but also for the anathema imposed in the XVI century by the founder of Protestantism, Martin Luther. Although even inexperienced in the intricacies of faith though a Catholic, though Orthodox say that denial of icons, Holy relics, prayers for the dead are absolutely incompatible with the faith of their Churches. That, in fact, says the anathema of the Church - the excommunication.
Well, as the ancients said, "everything flows, everything changes". And, anyway, but admit their mistakes, in other words - of sins, which is repentance is very positive not only for individual believers, but also for the Church in General.
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