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Viewings: 5891The mystery of the origin of life on Earth revealed! This motto has long played on the standards of science. The origin of life on Earth was considered to be quite obvious. The researchers of this problem outlined magic biochemical circle within which built a simple model, according to which about 4 billion years ago the Earth by natural chemical processes from non-living matter was born the first living cells. Scripts Soviet academician A.I. Oparin and the Englishman GB Haldane, these cells are formed in the primary earth's ocean, which was a real chemical broth. The Earth's atmosphere at that time was virtually oxygen-free and consisted of methane, ammonia, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
However, with time, space exploration showed that in itself it is a real chemical broth and does not need to invent gipotermiceski ocean: all necessary for the emergence of life components existed in space long before the Earth was formed from the dust cloud that circled around the Sun. And a group of Dutch scientists in 1984 empirically in a helium cryostat, providing cosmic cold and vacuum, received the complex organic molecules (carboxylic acids, amino, urea etc) - that is, these compounds can be formed without any oceans...
But it's not even where, in the end, there was the first living cell, and why it happened. It is believed that the origin of life is the result of any special circumstances, completely random, in virtue of which occurred some biochemical processes that led to the formation of a living cell from inanimate matter.
Well, let's see, is this possible. Nobel laureates Watson and Crick, who discovered the existence of the genetic code, has proved that the contents of this code is the abstract of the account. But we still have no idea, for example, by what laws are formed "alphabet" and "words" of the genetic code and how did "recorded" their chemical types of proteins. Simply speaking, we face the same problem: we have the simplest amino acids - adenine (a), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). Of these "letters" (the simplest amino acids) are three-letter "words", such as ATT, the archives, GAG, and so on. Each of these "words" means the molecule of one of those two dozen complex of amino acids that form a molecule of protein. A chain of several hundred or several thousand of these three-letter combinations and is the "record"setting the rules of the formation of this protein molecules. Now the question is: these rules are formulated by chance?
After many years of research on this question has been answered, probably better than anyone knows the problem of man - Sam Francis Crick, the discoverer of the genetic code, a recognized world authority biology: "No! That's impossible!" And also it is impossible to imagine that a living cell could accidentally be born by itself, as the result of random chemical reactions.
Well, the cell was formed. But where this diversity of life forms that have arisen, then, from a single cell?
Here lifesaver for daring naturalists long time was the so-called "theory of evolution", developed in the nineteenth century, Charles Darwin. According to this theory, the diversity of species of plants and animals inhabiting the earth, is the result of frequent, absolutely random mutation, which, being summarized in the course for thousands of years, through the so-called "transitional links lead to the appearance of new species. Then in the action comes natural selection. Interspecific struggle destroys or presses on the periphery of species that are not adapted to the conditions of life in this biological "niche" given external conditions, at the same time allowing them to flourish types, who by chance was better adapted for survival.
This model, it staged a large portion of scientists hundred years ago, today is bursting at the seams can't stand the flood of new discoveries. So, paleontology, after many years of studying thousands of fossilized skeletons, has not found a single example of "transitional links". Modern science is not known no fossil of a creature, which could be said that at the next stage, developed out of it another creature. All known organisms, like fossils, and current, are significantly different from each other. If evolution was Darwinian - small steps random changes, now we could admire the most amazing things: for example, Turkey with webbed as goose paws - what can you do, randomly mutated, it might be useful in the case of the flood...
Not all smooth that Darwinists and interspecific competition. For example, recently it became known that the forest has its own communication network, a kind of Internet, which between plants is the exchange of information, and sometimes food.
This discovery completely changes the way the forest as a place of quiet struggle, where each blade of grass lives its own life, constantly battling to take the neighbors of the moisture, light and air. In fact, according to British and canadian researchers, trees "communicate" with each other through a single underground communication network, only instead of copper or optical cables used fungus called mycorrhiza, which grows on the fibers of the roots.
Scientists managed to establish that with mycorrhizal fungi is even the transfer of nutrients, and the trees, which have intensified the process of photosynthesis (deciduous trees, for example, birch), give the "excess" trees, which have the photosynthesis process is slower (coniferous).
Studies have shown that forests are interrelated balanced ecosystem, and the picture of the forest in the world in many respects, was totally unexpected. So, it turned out that for the successful growth of young trees Mature trees inferior to them through the communications network" some of the needed sources of growth. The underground network of Macoris provides optimal distribution of nutrients between all the trees of the forest, which is especially important when the impoverishment of the soil. The presence of a "network" is explained by the fact symbiosis of trees and fungi. In the forest the Internet" and their "hackers" is a low-growing plants that are not able to provide for themselves through their own photosynthesis and are forced to exploit the large trees.
Thus, instead of the "struggle for survival"that seemed to Darwin, one of the driving forces of evolution in the world of plants harmony, based on cooperation of independent units.
Today there are no facts, confirming the thesis Darwin's on the origin of new species in the quantitative accumulation of gradual changes. The scientists of the growing popularity of the idea that the formation of species occurs abruptly, in the result of qualitative changes within a very short time. But this theory generates a lot of difficult issues. As it can help to explain, for example, the fact of conversion of antelope in a giraffe? This is not only the process of lengthening the neck and front legs, increase of muscular mass, strengthening of the skeleton. This restructuring of the vestibular apparatus that in a minute, when the animal sharply raises his head from the ground to a height of about six meters the blood draining from the brain. As for the short time there could be such a difficult transformation, if considered "random"? Rather, we can talk about a targeted and programmed transformation.
Finally the role of "blind chance" in evolution has excluded the recent opening of the fact that the main part of the genetic mutations is carried out with a clear direction, and the few facts random mutation, as a rule, are violations in the body and does not carry anything constructive! So instead of "blind chance" to the forefront of evolution is intelligent design.
The world around us ceases to be understood is understandable from the point of view of natural science of the nineteenth century, which is the Foundation of modern science. Over the last century, discovered a huge number of new facts, but to explain many of these facts and to build on their basis of any coherent theory of science. In other words, the more we learn, the less you know. But since ancient times people knew that the Truth is hidden from the people, and to grasp it only by intuition...
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