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Биотопливо - друг природы?To become truly "ecotoursim"little one only of biofuels. Researchers from Switzerland undertook a detailed analysis of the most common types of biofuels - and have come to the regrettable conclusion. Most of the scenarios is not so much solves an environmental problem as it dumps the burden of responsibility on others shoulders. The question arises: biofuels - the nature of each?

Indeed, it is proved that this type of fuel reduces emissions of CO2, but also causes great damage to the soil and waters. And this is only the tip of the iceberg.

In the result of the research, the most environmentally friendly biofuels was transformed into methane manure and sawdust. Also the scientists "praised" sugar cane used to make ethanol. But even this harmless raw materials is not as green as it seems at first glance. So, the harm to the environment from "opilochnoj-purulent" methane about 40% of what is used in oil industry. However, the data depend on the used materials and processing technology, precise execution of instructions and just from a responsible attitude.

Biofuels

Biofuel is fuel, which, as a rule, is obtained from biological raw materials, such as soybean, maize, rape seeds and stalks of sugar cane. Can also be used varieties of organic waste and cellulose.
Distinguish these types of biofuels: solid, liquid and gaseous.

The first type is mainly include manure, sawdust, peat. At first spend their briquetting, then dried and burned in a fire boxes thermal power plants or in fireplaces residential buildings, thus producing cheap electricity for industrial and domestic use, and wood waste (bark, sawdust, husks, straw, etc.) bitteroot.

Liquid mind are: bioethanol, biomethanol, dimethyl ether, butanol and biodiesel. Bioethanol is conventional ethanol, which is obtained as a result of processing (hydration of ethylene or alcoholic fermentation) vegetable raw materials. Compared with gasoline with bioethanol is less "powerful" energy source. A major disadvantage is that during its combustion in the exhaust gas of the engines are formed aldehydes, which cause enormous damage to living organisms.

Bioetanol - type biofuel based on methyl (wood) alcohol. From the point of view of energy production this biosystem has considerable economic advantages in comparison with other means of conversion of solar energy. As for biobutanol, it has wide use in industry. He may, but need not, be mixed with conventional fuels.

The energy intensity of butanol is very close to the energy content of gasoline. It is operated in a fuel components, as well as an element for the manufacture of hydrogen. Raw materials for its production can be beet, sugar cane, wheat, corn, and perhaps in the future and cellulose.

Dimethyl ether also applies to liquid form of biofuels. It is produced through processing of natural gas, coal, biomass, waste of pulp and paper production. Dimethyl ether is a kind of environmentally friendly fuel sulphur.

Biodiesel based on animal fats of plant and microbial origin. To obtain the raw material used rapeseed, coconut, palm and soybean oil, and food waste.

Most of the problems with using all of the above fuels will be solved during the implementation phase, the so-called biofuels of the second and third generations. The second generation will be produced according to the technology for liquefaction of gases Fischer-Tropsch process. Sources of raw materials for the new biofuels are lignocellulosic connection.

The third-generation biofuel is fuel, which is derived from algae. Now besides growing algae in ponds under the open sky, there are technologies of their cultivation in small bioreactors, located close to the power plants.

Gaseous biofuels includes: biogas (a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane), which is the product of fermentation of organic waste (biomass), methane and hydrogen.

Situation in Ukraine

Ukraine occupies the first place on the performance of biofuels among the largest potential producers of the world.
The time will come when the progress of bioenergy production will be one of the priorities of the government of Ukraine, as this issue is connected with the energy security of the country and with the development of several interrelated sectors (machine-building and agriculture).

As for the biofuel market in Ukraine today, it is under-developed. Getting started the first programs was at the end of 2006 - beginning of 2007, but as the country faced an economic crisis, many of these programs were suspended.

Currently, there are several manufacturers, but their work can not be called a system. The development of this industry is still in its initial state, as it needs investments, which due to lower investment atmosphere in Ukraine is very difficult to attract.
Although international companies and inform about the desire of the output of biofuels on the Ukrainian market, but both foreign and Ukrainian investors a minimum belief that the market for this type of fuel will progress and to obtain state support.

First steps in this direction have been taken on may 24, 2012. Then the Verkhovna Rada adopted the law "On the development of production and consumption of biological types of fuel". Until that time, the production of this fuel was regulated more generalized law "On alternative types of fuel", which regulate the production of solid and gaseous species that do not provide an opportunity to consider in production and consumption of biofuel in all respects. As for the new law, it has defined the types of fuel.

One way of stimulating consumption and, of course, the production of biofuels, written in the law, is the formation of the corresponding information Fund. However, already now there are doubts concerning the adequate realization of this project at the state level - the order of the creation of such a Fund and the sources of financing are not clear.

Our state is ready to contribute to the increase in the share of diesel oil and mixed gasoline containing bioethanol. Also in Ukraine there are a large number of companies engaged in creation of projects on alternative energy and create their own private associations.

Prospects of development of the biofuel market is evident, but still some outstanding issues that require joint processing from the government and market participants.

What to expect?

As is known, deforestation has long been "eucetsa" world. Only sawdust what we are often on fuel send not the remains after the cut of the beams for the houses. Another example is the processing of soybeans for biodiesel is a problem, because the quantity of emitted greenhouse gases in two times more than during the combustion of fossil fuels.

Biofuels increases soil erosion and pollution of air and water. In some cases, its use can result in climate-destabilizing the greenhouse gas emissions of more even than the emissions from the use of conventional gasoline.

Biofuels gradually accelerates the process of global warming, and leads to the destruction of forests and other natural ecosystems. Crops for biofuel all compete and compete for space with food crops, thus reinforcing the process of increasing food prices and hunger.

Conclusions

Today it is proved that the use of biofuels significantly harm the environment, as pollutes our air and water and leads to the destabilization of climate. "Green" fuels are slowly becoming the environment of the black trouble.

Palamarchuk Irina
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