Предлагаем восстановить, заказать, купить диплом Вуза в любом городе России. Только настоящий бланк ГОЗНАК с гарантией.
Viewings: 4449"The world community", infected with parasitic habits, she tries to usurp Antarctica, opened in 1820 Russian scientists Bellingshausen and Lazarev. They think that Russia badly weakened, and it can Rob...
Lived was Antarctica. In 1959 she became the mainland of international cooperation, science and military intervention. On the last resource base of mankind-Smoking search and extraction of minerals, it does not belong to any state. All countries in unison said, "okay" and began to live together....
Is not the way to the Arctic, right? Perhaps people just suddenly changed his mind and began to worry about our common future. The British and Americans are now only interested in climate millions of years ago, global warming in a thousand years, and the similarity problem prehistoric mosses with mosses modern. To do this, on the sixth continent flow billions of dollars, the best minds and the latest equipment. And the main thing - all this in complete deafening silence. International cooperation, of course. But not caring about future generations so pericline brains "compassionate" to the world community in the middle of the last century. This has made only one figure - 1820.
This is just like the Ostrovsky: "So you do not go over anyone!". And without a dowry in our case - open in the same 1820 Russian heroes Bellingshausen and Lazarev Antarctica. The Russians, you know? And if any country and has a monopoly on the sixth continent, it is only Russia.
Ice broke up"
In recent grad Tumakov strewed on Wikipedia, and I will make its own modest contribution to this good cause. Came to investigate, not to look into this omnipresent, I could not. And found a curious phrase. It turns out that Antarctica was officially opened by the Bellingshausen and Lazarev. Think, bureaucratic formality. Only Columbus America somehow discovered "unofficially"... However, patriotism Wikipedia never sinned.
How did so many "officialdom" on our head? Answer the question dated the sixteenth century maps that Antarctica is free of ice. The most popular - authorship of a Piri Reis, - allegedly discovered in 1929 by the Director of the National Museum in Istanbul by Halil Adhanom. However, it was of no one paid until 1959, when the American scientist Charles Hapgood were not smart enough to send it for examination. The authenticity of this card has repeatedly questioned. However, in Wikipedia, it appears in the first lines, as the source of the first degree of reliability. Dot the "i" puts the phrase: "However, the expedition of bellinsgausen and Lazarev in the South polar seas, skirting around the world Antarctic ice has confirmed the existence of the sixth continent". 't revealed they do, but only confirmed, and we thought! Further: "First came to the continent, probably, the command of the American ship "Cecilia" 7 February 1921....". But this is serious! Not that we with your Acknowledgements.
But what is that Piri Reis was and why he had "unfrozen" Antarctica? Know about it, frankly, a little bit. Well, Admiral, Turkish well. In cartographers "has since become" after a magical discovery in 1929 in a Palace of at least magic card 1513. Directly tale of "1001 nights". Meanwhile, not installed, even the exact date of birth of our hero. And, notice, this is not the dark ages and the epoch of the great geographical discoveries. In addition to the ill-fated discovery, to the historical responsibility for anything more were not involved.
Something troubling and digital 1929. What event first comes to mind? Depression, the Great, and ruthless. The United States, the decline. And Europe is not in chocolate, Germany again bent. What if translated into English at all, by the way, not typical Turkish loyal subject name (often used at all with a hyphen: Piri Reis)? While no conclusions - naked curiosity. Peer - peer, people of high society", Raise rise, the increase" (including the economy). That lovers puns Englishmen with their chamber of peers and "depressed" Americans are fed one banking milk can, I think, not to mention. As to Germany, English money flowed in this country, too, about the numbers 1929. Began preparation of puppets-Hitler, fascism, the development of the German military industry with all the ensuing consequences, including well-planned explosion in the form of the Second World war.
Separate attention deserves the figure of the scientist who overturned his "sensation" the whole scientific world. The thing is that through the hands of Charles Hapgood - modest Professor Kinsky College (Hampshire) were almost ALL known today unfreeze card confirming the same fact: Antarctica was - God be with him without ice! - opened and examined by the people long BEFORE the Bellingshausen and Lazarev. Time to "create" cards perfectly from the beginning of the sixteenth century and beyond. Not to touch the year 1492 - Columbus-that is not what America is already belongs to somebody else. Why sixth continent deprived of ice? It's simple - to involve a sensation of representatives of science, and hence the entire world community.
Yes, Piri Reis was not alone. In 1959 (for the moment, the year of signature of the Convention on Antarctica) Hapgood made another "sensational" opening. Fingering dusty papers of the National library of Congress in Washington, he turned over another page ancient and experienced surprise him again looked, sorry, "naked" Antarctica. This time authorship of Oronteus of Vinius, 1531 release. Well what the hell happened! Scientist on the genus was written to find sensational card at the most suitable time for this.
Then there were Mercator map, Philip Boise, Haji Ahmed. What they found is a mystery, but turned their attention Hapgood. He donated the collection to the examination colleague from Massachusetts Institute of technology Dr. Richard Streisand. That, of course, was not the least doubt of their authenticity. All the above cartographers 16th century supposedly get their cards with more ancient sources. Name of Ptolemy, Alexander the great and even Christopher Columbus. But there is no documentary evidence is not one of the "origin" was not kept.
All this is very similar to children who broke a vase, and sticking a finger at each other, until the truth can't be reached, but it is clear that business is dirty.
Many people today are talking about the fact that millions of years ago on the Earth there was a highly developed civilization, in many respects superior to ours. Appear even really phenomenal discoveries, which absolutely do not fit into the logic of the template thinking. But let's think clearly and look at all the Golden mean. After all, the eternal principle "look, who benefits" has not been canceled. Otherwise willingness to think outside the box can play with us a cruel joke, overshadowing a reality. And with the cards. Well, couldn people in the 16th century to determine the latitude and longitude, this was possible only in the 18th century with the invention of the chronometer. Not they possessed and necessary knowledge in mathematics and trigonometry, and the circumference of the Earth Eratosthenes determined at that time still with great accuracy! At the same time our "sensational" map are cartographical masterpiece of art, with latitudes and longitudes, measured up to the minute. Made in the isometric projection; they fully correspond to modern experimental samples. Nothing but a miracle of ancient civilization, scientists, this fact does not explain. Do you believe in miracles? I would like to believe. But a broken vase - a fact and, therefore, the most stubborn thing in the world.
Very cold war
With Antarctica "broken" by many, but the first was James cook. In 1768 his expedition on Board with the optimistic title "Attempt" (endeavour) went to explore the transit of Venus across the Sun. With the imagination of the British government was not. So your greedy new colonies grin again they had covered a good old Puritan love for science. On the South by the voucher from London cook went several times. In one of them even came across the East coast of Australia, has named New South Wales and, without hesitation, declared a British possession. But " that's not the problem! - not found fresh water, and the goal was not scored. Had to swim again. And because almost swam. Even opened the South sandwich Islands and South George, but at around 71 degrees South latitude of the Antarctic ice was too harsh for the English expedition. In the book "Journey to the South pole and around the world" cook wrote: "If anyone finds determination and tenacity to resolve this question, and penetrate beyond me to the South, I shall not be jealous of the glory of his discoveries. But I must say that the world of its opening will bring little benefit". And it was only 200 miles! Inevitably will remember about a Fox and the grapes ...
"Anti-PR campaign" cook worked so well that for 45 years "useless" continent does not affect either one power. Look, yet a little while, and the British would prepare a new expedition, but, alas, was ahead. And who do you think? Right - Bellingshausen and Lazarev. 4 June 1819 their Antarctic expedition on Board the sloops "Vostok" and "Mirny" sailed from Kronstadt. And in 1820 eventually reached impenetrable ice continent, once again proving that Russian nothing is impossible. Another confirmation of this is the work of Mikhail Lomonosov "About the layers of the earth", where is he in 1761, that is, even before the "attempts to" cook claimed on the edge of the southern hemisphere is "substance earth, covered with eternal ice".
What was happening around Antarctica in the following years, can only be compared with hysteria late for a train. The British, Americans, Norwegians, French, German frantically tried to get "hitch" to the destination. Simply speaking, one after the other sailed to the southern coast and opened them again. Parts. The "sea" in his honour called as Ross and Weddell, the new Earth will find the island, the volcano.... Often experienced a heated debate about what you have discovered. Well though fighting was not. Among geographers complete confusion lasted until the beginning of the 20th century. The priority of the Bellingshausen and Lazarev forgot in 20 years.
In the 20th century, the greatest speed in the "investigation" of Antarctica has been Germany. She was sent to the mainland three expeditions: in 1901-1903, in 1911-1912, and in 1938-1939. The last two are the most interesting. There is no need to explain why - date eloquent than words. It is, no more, no less, on the eve of the two world wars, the "official" instigators were the Germans. From the second expedition researcher William Filchner brought rock samples, and the results of their study had a bombshell: the mineral resources of Antarctica is rich in high-quality uranium. Today it is known that uranium reserves at the sixth continent almost a third higher than the most rich deposits in the Congo, and its concentration is 30%. The Germans had a similar (though not accurate) information already to the beginning of the third expedition - the most ambitious, the daring and mysterious.
The mess of Antarctica could move anyone, but not Stalin. His government, preoccupied by the eagerness of the British and the Norwegians in the "study" of the southern continent, in January 1939, said an official protest to the governments of these countries due to the fact that their Antarctic expedition "...did unreasonable section on the sector of land - attention!!! once opened by Russian explorers and navigators...". These notes were sent to the USA and Japan. Wait... Norway, Britain, USA, Japan... But where is Germany? I will say that Stalin then "fraternized" with Hitler? You false"democratic" information. It is just one more proof that Germany was only a puppet in the hands of a clever puppeteer of the countries mentioned above. Stalin will not give the lie. And the world has not made to wait, and started exactly in September 1939.
Few people know that the Soviet Union immediately after the devastating victory over the Germans in 1945, won another, no less impressive - over Americans for Antarctica. Today are silent about this, so as not to raise the authority of Stalin, previously silent, to portray the peaceful nature of Soviet foreign policy. Why the silence Americans? Because it is probably about the biggest shame in their history.
In the 1920-ies about Richard Byrd in the USA hardly songs didn't make. National American hero first flew over the North pole, threw an American flag over the South pole, established the first long-acting US the station in Antarctica "little America" (very inspiring name, isn't it?). Baird was headed by four expeditions to the sixth continent, the last of which took place in 1946-1947 year, immediately after the Second World war. No day without sleep, no day without rest. But the star Byrd after these events never shone brighter. According to some data, the national hero of America landed in the hospital, and his name was covered with fog.
"Research" expedition was funded by the U.S. government. In her modest part was a special squadron of 14 American warships and auxiliary vessels. Among them aircraft carrier, on Board of which there were helicopters and airplanes. According to the memoirs of pilot Sigerson, an air group of the aircraft carrier " Casablanca" consisted of six (or seven) helicopters S-46", 25 aircraft: five fighter F-4U Corsair, five jet attack aircraft A-21 Vampire", nine bombers "Helldiver", commander F7F Tigercat and five XF-5U Skimmer ("pancakes"). The expedition was also included submarine Sennet. In the expedition - several thousand marine commandos. The total number of participants - 4-5 thousand people. The official aim is to strike a last blow to the Third Reich in the ice of Antarctica.
Stalin sent a squadron to Antarctica. In late 1946 whaling flotilla "Slava" under command of captain Voronin moved to the South pole. The exact number of surface ships, submarines and aircraft, members of the squadron, is still unknown. However, the writer-artist A. Sattar in 1996 wrote in the almanac "Shipbuilding in the USSR", which participated in a campaign destroyers of project 45 - "High", "Important" and "Impressive". The destroyers were constructed in 1945 with the use of captured technologies used by the Japanese when designing their destroyers of the type "Fubuki", destined for swimming in the harsh conditions of the Northern and Arctic seas. In aviation acted fighters company P-63 "Kingcobra"supplied by the Americans under lend-lease and izgotovleniya exclusively on the Soviet order. "Kingcobra", in the words of one of the memoirs of the time, could become the main reserve of Stalin in case of unforeseen changes in the military-political situation and the outbreak of war with the US. They were equipped with all the parts of the air defense of the USSR. Of all Soviet fighters only "Kingcobra" could reach the sky main strategic bomber of the U.S. B-29 "Superkristi".
What happened to the fourth expedition Byrd?
Just something well prepared and equipped naval squadron, equipped with food for 8 months, suddenly turned omotola back to America. As it turned out later, she arrived with huge losses - both material and human. Any attempts to obtain accurate data, are doomed to failure.
The first "exploded" the American press. In one of the Central American magazine "foreign Affairs", former adviser-envoy of the USA and the USSR George Kennan, shortly before urgently left Moscow "for consultations with their government, published an article in which he expressed the idea of "the need for a speedy organize resistance unreasonably raised ambitions Tips that after successful completion of the war with Germany and Japan are in a hurry to use its military and political victories for plantations harmful ideas of communism not only in Eastern Europe and China, but also in the remote Antarctica!". Indeed, how can we not talk about the "bloody regime" Stalin...
In response, the Soviet Union released its Memorandum of political regime of Antarctica, where they place all points over "i" in the US intentions "...to deprive the USSR its legitimate rights, based on the discoveries in this part of the world Russian navigators, made in the early 19th century". After this statement and other decisive actions (and they Stalin was master) the Secretary of state Truman James Byrnes resigned, forced by the President himself. This man has always stood for the most severe sanctions against the USSR. His last words on the state post were: "Damned Russians cannot scare".
In 1950, greed and arrogance international claims on Antarctica reached its peak. The USSR sent a note to the effect that leaves its right to claim the entire continent, as its discoverer. In 1956, is already under Khrushchev - to the shores of Antarctica came diesel-electric ship "Ob", and created the first Soviet Observatory and the base of researchers - the peace settlement. It is curious that the Convention about the "universal" Antarctica was signed just three years. And the only obvious reason for such a coincidence - the threat is real presence and strengthening of Russian in Antarctica. By the way, due to this Convention entered in 1961, when it was officially announced about the huge reserves of uranium in the depths of Antarctica. In the same year broke the Cuban missile crisis... And who knows - maybe Soviet missiles in Cuba were only a pretext.
And killed Lee bear?
As it is strange - Russia throughout history wins almost all of the war and does almost all discoveries. Only now, when it comes to "giveaway", always remains on the sidelines. Modesty is the strongest? Maybe only impudent not necessary. You, brothers, even the skin of a bear share in the good old Russian proverb " when it is not killed. On Antarctica today claim to: USA, UK, Norway, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, China, South Korea and, as they say, many others... Flown, in a hurry. One only answer the question: what the hell? Well, what right do you have to Antarctica? The issue is not complicated, but it sounds somehow rare.
He doesn't sound at meetings of the UN, it does not sound in Russian schools and Russian media. The case is as though a matter of course - this Land is the fact, that the shelf different. Who had time, he ate? "Inviolability" of Antarctica ends in 2048 year with the expiration of the Convention. To prolong it, of course, no one will. After all, exactly, by this time will end five resources mastered continents. End of oil, gas, fresh water. How are the things with it in Antarctica? 80% of the world's supply of fresh water, oil fields, at times exceeding pantries Saudi Arabia (6,5 billion tons), coal, gas (more than 4 trillion. cube m), iron ore, uranium (remember, more than in the Congo), and a snack - gold and diamonds.
Author - Elena Fedotova
You are reading news Битва за Антарктиду if You liked the article Битва за Антарктиду, prokomentiruet her.