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Как спасти человечествоNothing is eternal in this world. Ever life on our planet will stop. Why this happens, it's hard to say. The only way to salvation, scientists say, that resettlement to other planets. But how to implement it?

Sad inevitability

"The best part of mankind, in all probability, will never perish, but will move from sun to sun, as they extinction. There is no end to life, the end of mind and human improvement. The progress of his eternal optimistic said the father of rocket technology Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. His mouth, as they say, Yes honey drink. But cosmic romance Konstantin Eduardovich there were many opponents to the opposite point of view. For example, mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell was more pessimistic: "...all the labors of the ages, all the devotion, all the inspiration, all the noonday brightness of human genius, are destined to death in a giant fire in the Solar system; and the whole temple achievements person inevitably be buried beneath the ruins of the Universe...".

Gloomy, but a realistic picture. By the standards of scientists, the Sun will go out within the next 5 billion years. First the light will flash a bright flame, the temperature on the Earth will rise sharply, the oceans will boil and evaporate, leaving the dull desert, the mountains will melt and flow benches on the town and valley. This is just one scenario, and there can be several. The cause of death of all living things can be a new ice age. When it will come - the big question. There is an opinion that at the present time is coming to an end favorable climatic period, and the Earth is on the verge of entering a new ice age.

Anyway, cooling the planet happens about once every 100 thousand years, and the reasons that cause it, science is unknown. In addition, life on Earth may die, and from a collision with a large meteorite or asteroid, and it is more than plausible scenario. Happened once such a disaster, when on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico dropped a giant meteorite about 10 kilometres across. At the place of his fall, formed a crater with a diameter of 300 km. most unlucky dinosaurs - they disappeared from the face of the Earth.

In General, anyway, to avoid hours of his mortal Earth will fail, and the whole of our galaxy. Once the milky Way will collide with its neighbor - the larger the Andromeda Galaxy. Most of all will suffer "outskirts" - just "torn off" from the "head". And because our Solar system is on the edge, it will throw so far that it will only horns Yes feet.

Solar sail

Life originated on earth, is so unique that it should be extended at least one planet - disaster. But how to do it? Scientists today are struggling with the decision of a question. To the nearest star, alpha Centauri more than 4 light-years. It is far. If you run it with a chemical rocket jet engine, it will fly there for 70 000 years. Not an option. Clearly, if people want to reach other stars, they need spaceships a completely different type. One of them could become a solar sail. In the core of his work is simple principle: Parus not fit with the wind and sunlight. The idea is not new, for the first time it was presented in the XVII century.

In 2004, the Japanese tried to embody it in life, launching into space two small experimental sails. After a year and Russian scientists tried, but the attempt failed. While scientists have nothing to boast of specially - idea stalling. Specialists are carrying a plan to build on the moon huge battery of lasers that will put powerful rays in the solar sail, making it much faster. The ship that sails would be needed just eight years to reach alpha Centauri. The prospect of more than tempting. Just have to decide how to deliver on the moon itself sail and a lot of equipment. But even if this task engineers can handle it, the question remains how to return sail to the Ground.

Elevator into space

The greatest obstacle for interstellar flights - huge weight and dimensions of space ships. To build such on the Ground and launch a satellite into orbit is a task not only impossible, but also expensive. The alternative is to build such ships in space. In conditions of weightlessness astronauts will be able to raise and roll incredibly heavy objects.

The difficulty is that this project also requires a lot of money. After all, the ships-shuttles will have to climb to space more than once to provide astronauts with all the necessary details. When experts estimate, how much will such a project, it was not myself. And then a new idea - to build a space Elevator. Like the one about whom it is told in the tale, "Jack and the bean seed." The idea at first glance, really fantastic. However, she deserves a lot of attention. This Elevator in the most magical way is rising in the sky and went behind the clouds and through it into orbit'd be all that is required for the construction of the spacecraft. The first, who came up with this idea in mind was still the same entertainer Tsiolkovsky, later foreign specialists his idea developed, conceived to build a lift from the bottom to the top is like a tower. Russian scientists made their contribution by proposing to build in reverse order, from top to bottom, starting from space.

Need to launch a satellite, to spend with him the cable and attach it to the earth. The problem is that there is no material for the cable, which could withstand such tension. In 1999, Americans talked about, that is ready to create a tape of a width of 1 m and a length of about 47 thousand km, and it was a real breakthrough, a kind of revolution. Moreover, NASA announced a contest with a prize Fund of 10 million dollars to the one who will offer the best solution. Although the case was moved from a dead point, it does not mean that tomorrow will rise up completely unthinkable space Elevator. The problem is that engineers still need to master the technology of production of long ropes of carbon nanotubes, and it may take several decades. Probably not we, but our grandchildren and great-grandchildren will be able to climb the space Elevator in heaven, and from there - you never can tell - will reach the nearest stars!

Gun shot

A science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke in his novels were launching humans into space with... guns. Today, scientists are seriously considering the idea. We will not dwell on the technical details of the project, except to say that conventional rail gun is capable of firing a metal shell with a speed of 8 km / sec. This is enough to bring the ship into earth orbit. But if so, why experts are still not using guns to deliver to orbit a payload? The explanation is simple. Objects that are running with a gun, fly so fast that splashimages due to the friction of the air.

Cargo is delivered to the destination heavily deformed. Moreover, with the acceleration of cargo is also deformed. What then will happen with the person? Our bones will not stand such acceleration, the astronaut will perish in the way to orbit. It's another thing to install such a gun on the moon. There, outside the earth's atmosphere, the projectile will be able to accelerate in the vacuum of outer space. But the problem is that there's hardly anyone cargo will avoid deformation at startup. In General, while not invented by scientists such hardy ships-robots that a good idea could be to implement.

I am happy with another: the work goes on, scientists are struggling with the problem. It is obvious that space travel is not a walk out of the city, and to find the most optimal solution is not easy. But another way there.

Andrew PALCO
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